Editorial Guide

The Editorial Style Guide provides common words, definitions and abbreviations as well as style and punctuation guidance. Entries in the guide are listed in bold and as they should appear on first reference. Some of the entries include preferred ways to use the entry on second reference. Second references and examples are italicized.

The Associated Press Stylebook and Webster’s New World College Dictionary are the primary references for all university communications. The Chicago Manual of Style and other sources should be used when the Editorial Style Guide and AP Stylebook don’t provide guidance for any specific issue.

Entries in the guide are listed in bold and as they should appear on first reference. Some of the entries include preferred ways to use the entry on second reference. Second references and examples are given in italic.


1021 W. Dickson

Built in 1958, it is the primary dining hall serving the residential halls on the south side of upper campus. 1021 W. Dickson is both its name and address, so writers may need to be clear that they are writing about a dining facility. Aside from the main cafeteria, 1021 W. Dickson includes a Starbucks coffee shop, a Slim Chickens shop, a Quiznos sandwich shop and a convenience store among other amenities.

When built, it was named for Charles Hillman Brough, a former economics professor and state governor. His tenure as governor, however, was marred by his actions in supporting white farmers during the Elaine Massacre of 1919, and the Board of Trustees removed his name from the building in 2021. Its building code is FSBC.


abbreviations and acronyms

In general, avoid using abbreviations and acronyms that readers would not recognize quickly and easily.

An abbreviation is a shortening of a word or words: Ph.D. for Philosophaie Doctor, for instance. An acronym is a word formed from the first letter or letters of a series of words: scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus).

Do not follow an organization's full name with an abbreviation or acronym in parentheses or set off by dashes. If an abbreviation or acronym would not be clear on second reference without this arrangement, do not use the acronym. Names not commonly before the public should not be reduced to acronyms solely to save a few words.

Do not use "the" in front of acronyms that are pronounced like a word, such as NASA, but do use "the" in front of abbreviations or acronyms that are pronounced by their letters, such as the FBI or the CIA.

The Associated Press recommends abbreviating some titles when used before a full name: Dr., Gov., Lt. Gov., Mr., Mrs., Ms., Rep., the Rev., Sen. and certain military titles listed under their separate entry.

Abbreviate junior and senior after an individual's name but don't set off with commas. Abbreviate company, corporation, incorporated and limited when used as part of a corporate name but do not set off with commas: Tyson Foods Inc., Allen Canning Co., Alltel Corp. or Trimble Navigation Ltd.

Refer also to the academic degrees, building names, military titles and University of Arkansas entries.

Abernathy AgriScience and Technology Education Center

It is located at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center. On second reference, AgriScience Center is sufficient. Its building code is AATC.


This term is outdated. It referred to the aboriginal people of Australia. It is considered offensive and should be avoided.

Refer also to the native, Native entry.

academic degrees

The University of Arkansas awards four types of academic degrees based on the expertise and recognition that a student has attained: a bachelor's degree, a master's degree, a specialist degree and a doctoral degree. When using an academic degree to establish a person's credentials in the narrative of a story, the preferred form is to spell out the name of the degree: Barbara Smith, who holds a doctorate, or Bill Jones earned a bachelor's degree in art from the university.

Writers may use either the proper name of the degree, such as Master of Business Administration, or the informal wording, master's degree in business administration. Uppercase the former and lowercase the latter. Also lowercase words that are not part of the proper name of the degree: She earned a Bachelor of Science in biology.

Use of abbreviations such as B.A., M.A., LL.D. or Ph.D. is allowed when the preferred use would be cumbersome, such as when numerous individuals are being listed with their degrees. In an exception to the Associated Press style, treat the shortened forms as abbreviations rather than acronyms, so use M.F.A. rather than MFA. If using an abbreviation after a person's name, use it only after the full name of the person and not after just a last name: Barbara Smith, Ph.D.

The correct form for using the possessive is to follow the possessive word — bachelor's, master's or doctor's — with the word "degree":

  • RIGHT: He received a master's degree in engineering.
  • WRONG: He earned a bachelor's of architecture degree.
  • RIGHT: He earned a Bachelor of Architecture.
  • RIGHT: Bill Jones, B.A.'98, is an alumnus.

Writers should be aware that abbreviations of academic degrees sometimes correspond to the Latin name of the degree. A Bachelor of Arts, for instance, is sometimes abbreviated by other institutions as A.B. because the Latin is artium bachelaurreus. The University of Arkansas abbreviates LL.M., J.D., O.T.D., Ph.D. and Ed.D in similar fashion. Generally, use the English version of full degree names rather than the Latin, except for Juris Doctor (Doctor of Law), which is awarded by the School of Law. The following degrees are awarded at the university:

Degree Abbr.
Bachelor of Architecture B.Arch.
Bachelor of Arts B.A.
Bachelor of Fine Arts B.F.A.
Bachelor of Interior Design B.I.D.
Bachelor of Landscape Architecture B.L.A.
Bachelor of Music B.M.
Bachelor of Science B.S.
Bachelor of Science in Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences B.S.A.
Bachelor of Science in Biological Engineering B.S.B.E.
Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Engineering B.S.Bm.E.
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration B.S.B.A.
Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering B.S.Ch.E.
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering B.S.C.E.
Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering B.S.Cmp.E.
Bachelor of Science in Education B.S.E.
Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering B.S.E.E.
Bachelor of Science in Human Environmental Sciences B.S.H.E.S.
Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering B.S.I.E.
Bachelor of Science in International Business B.S.I.B.
Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering B.S.M.E.
Bachelor of Science in Nursing B.S.N.
Bachelor of Science in Public Administration B.S.P.A.
Doctor of Education Ed.D.
Doctor of Nursing Practice D.N.P.
Doctor of Occupational Therapy O.T.D.
Doctor of Philosophy Ph.D.
Education Specialist Ed.S.
Juris Doctor (Doctor of Law) J.D.
Master of Accountancy M.Acc.
Master of Applied Business Analytics M.A.B.A.
Master of Arts M.A.
Master of Arts in Teaching M.A.T.
Master of Athletic Training M.AT.
Master of Business Administration M.B.A.
Master of Design Studies M.Des.
Master of Education M.Ed.
Master of Engineering Management M.S.E.M.
Master of Fine Arts M.F.A.
Master of Information Systems M.I.S.
Master of Laws (Legum Magister) LL.M.
Master of Music M.M.
Master of Professional Accounting M.P.Ac.
Master of Public Administration M.P.A.
Master of Public Health M.P.H.
Master of Public Service (via the Clinton School) M.P.S.
Master of Science M.S.
Master of Science in Biological Engineering M.S.B.E.
Master of Science in Biomedical Engineering M.S.B.M.E.
Master of Science in Chemical Engineering M.S.Ch.E.
Master of Science in Civil Engineering M.S.C.E.
Master of Science in Computer Engineering M.S.Cmp.E.
Master of Science in Electrical Engineering M.S.E.E.
Master of Science in Engineering M.S.E.
Master of Science in Engineering Management M.S.E.M.
Master of Science in Environmental Engineering M.S.En.E.
Master of Science in Industrial Engineering M.S.I.E.
Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering M.S.M.E.
Master of Science in Nursing M.S.N.
Master of Science in Operations Analytics M.S.O.A.
Master of Science in Operations Management M.S.O.M.
Master of Social Work M.S.W.
Refer also to the degrees with distinction and honorary degrees entries.

academic departments

The colleges and schools at the University of Arkansas are divided into departments. Very often, an academic department will offer a major of the same name, but several departments offer additional majors and some offer no undergraduate major. For instance, the Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sscience offers both a major in crop, soil and environmental sciences and a major in crop management; and, the Department of Entomology offers a minor and a graduate program but not an undergraduate major. Writers should be aware that these differences do exist.

A few also offer classwork in a particular field for which no major is offered. The physics department offers coursework in astronomy, for instance.

Treat department names as proper names and capitalize the full name in constructions such as Department of History, or Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering. This is an exception to Associated Press style, which treats academic departments as common names and recommends lowercase. Do use the subject lowercase if not part of the full department name: she teaches finance, professor of food science.

The word department may be used before or after the academic discipline: Department of History or the History Department, although using department before the discipline is recommended for departments with long names: the Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation.

Academic departments are listed below by college and school. Five schools at the university — the Eleanor Mann School of Nursing, the School of Art, the School of Human Environmental Sciences, the School of Journalism and Strategic Media, and the School of Social Work — are hierarchically at the same administrative level as these academic departments. See their individual entries for more information about them.

Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

  • Department of Agricultural and Extension Education
  • Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness
  • Department of Animal Science
  • Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences
  • Department of Entomology
  • Department of Food Science
  • Department of Horticulture
  • Department of Plant Pathology
  • Department of Poultry Science

Fay Jones School of Architecture and Design

  • Department of Architecture
  • Department of Interior Design
  • Department of Landscape Architecture

Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences

  • Department of Anthropology
  • Department of Biological Sciences
  • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
  • Department of Communication
  • Department of English
  • Department of Geosciences
  • Department of History
  • Department of Mathematical Sciences
  • Department of Music
  • Department of Philosophy
  • Department of Physics
  • Department of Political Science
  • Department of Psychological Science
  • Department of Sociology and Criminology
  • Department of Theatre
  • Department of World Languages, Literatures and Cultures

Sam M. Walton College of Business

  • Department of Economics
  • Department of Finance
  • Department of Information Systems
  • Department of Management
  • Department of Marketing
  • Department of Strategy, Entrepreneurship and Venture Innovation
  • Department of Supply Chain Management
  • William Dillard Department of Accounting

College of Education and Health Professions

  • Department of Curriculum and Instruction
  • Department of Education Reform
  • Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation
  • Department of Occupational Therapy
  • Department of Rehabilitation, Human Resources and Communication Disorders

College of Engineering

  • Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering
  • Department of Biomedical Engineering
  • Department of Civil Engineering
  • Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering
  • Department of Electrical Engineering
  • Department of Industrial Engineering
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering
  • Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering
Refer also to the colleges, departments, divisions and schools entries.

academic titles

In general, formal titles used before a person's name are capitalized: Dean Margaret Sova McCabe or Chancellor Steinmetz. If not used prior to a person's name, a title is no longer being used in the formal sense and should be lowercase: Margaret Sova McCabe, dean of the School of Law, or Joe Steinmetz is chancellor of the Fayetteville campus.

The university includes two formal ranks — University Professor and Distinguished Professor — that might cause ambiguity. When used, treat them in the same manner as an endowed title and capitalize them when used before or after a name: Max Meisch, University Professor of entomology; Amy Farmer, who holds the rank of University Professor, or Boris Schein, Distinguished Professor of mathematical sciences.

Professors and administrators often wear more than one hat and subsequently have more than one title. On first reference, identify a subject by the hat she is wearing for that story. If it's a story about her research as a professor, identify her as a professor. If it's a story about a research center that she directs, identify her as the director of the research center initially and then reference her status as a professor later.

EXAMPLE: If you were to write about sustainability, you might identify Gregory Salamo, director of the Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering, on first reference and then further identify him in a later reference as Salamo, Distinguished Professor of physics, said …

Endowed chairs, professorships and lectureships should include the full name of the title. When using a long title, do not use it in front of a person's name. Try to use it in the appositive form: … said Amy Farmer, the Margaret Gerig and R.S. Martin Jr. Chair in Business, or write a completely new sentence: Amy Farmer is a professor of economics and holds the Margaret Gerig and R.S. Martin Jr. Chair in Business.

Spell out Twenty-First when referring to one of the endowed positions created through donations to the Campaign for the Twenty-First Century: Alan Mantooth, holder of the Twenty-First Century Chair in Mixed-Signal IC Design and CAD.

Some formal academic titles include:

Chancellor Provost
Vice Chancellor Vice Provost
Associate Vice Chancellor Dean
Assistant Vice Chancellor Associate Dean
Refer also to the academic degrees, courtesy titles, titles and professor entries.

academic year

Because the academic year starts in one calendar year and ends in the next calendar year, refer to the year as the 2014-15 academic year.

Students who finish work on degrees during a summer session or the fall semester may receive their diplomas during the Fall Commencement or the Spring Commencement, but they are included as part of the graduating class of the following spring for purposes such as Senior Walk. However, students who are sufficiently close to graduation in the spring and who anticipate finishing the degree in the summer are allowed to participate in Spring Commencement prior to finishing, but a degree and diploma are not awarded until all classwork is finished.

Refer also to the calendar year and fiscal year entries.

accents and diacritics

Diacritics are marks added to letters, usually as a guide to show correct pronunciation of the letter in a specific language. Accents are the most common subset of diacritics, and they usually are placed above the letter needing affected pronunciation. For instance, pronunciation of the Japanese word saké might use an accent to show the "e" is pronounced whereas the pronunciation of the English word sake has no accent because the "e" is silent.

English uses very few diacritics, but American speech and writing have adopted many foreign words that had diacritics in their original language. For foreign words that have become common in English, diacritics are usually unnecessary: cafe, chateau, deja vu, eclair, hors d'oeuvre and naivete. (The original spellings were café, château, déjà vu, éclair, hors d'œuvre and naïveté.)

Accents and diacritics, however, are acceptable in such words and may be preferred in less well known international words to help a reader recognize that the word being used is foreign, but writers should use diacritical marks consistently. Don't refer to someone's résumé in one paragraph and then to their resume in the next.

Some common accent and diacritical marks:

  • é - acute
  • č - caron (inverted circumflex)
  • ç - cedilla
  • â - circumflex
  • è - grave
  • ñ - tilde
  • ü - umlaut (diaeresis)
Refer also to the italics entry.

accept, except

Accept means to receive. Except means to exclude.


The University of Arkansas is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. Various schools, colleges and departments may be further accredited. See the Catalog of Studies for a list.


Spell this with two c's and two m's.


Acceptable in all references to the previously designated American College Testing Program.


When used with a proper title, it remains lowercase: The president introduced acting Chancellor Mary Smith.


Acceptable for either male or female actors. Actress is acceptable if a subject of a story prefers it.


Generally, A.D. is assumed. Use the abbreviation only when doubt exists about whether a year is A.D. or B.C. The Associated Press says it is acceptable in all references for anno Domini; however, university writers should be aware that some academic disciplines use C.E., or common era, instead of A.D. to refer to the same time period. Follow the academic discipline's standards, but explain what common era means if the context is unclear.

Because the translation of anno Domini 1066 would read in the year of the Lord 1066, the abbreviation A.D. should be used prior to the year: A.D. 1066. If C.E. is used instead, it should follow the year: 1066 C.E.

Refer also to the B.C., B.C.E., C.E. and the historical periods and events entries.

additional major

For academic purposes, additional major refers to situations in the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences when a student who is fulfilling all requirements of a Bachelor of Science, a Bachelor of Social Work, a Bachelor of Fine Arts or a Bachelor Music degree and may also claim an additional major in a humanistic discipline, social science or interdisciplinary program associated with the Bachelor of Arts degree. Upon completion of all requirements in the additional major, the major will be included on the student's transcript although the B.A. degree is not awarded.

Refer also to the combined majors, double degrees, double majors, majors and second major entries.


Campus building names should be abbreviated when used for a mailing address in narrative material: Union Programs, ARKU A665, 1 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701.

Always use figures for an address number: 1 University of Arkansas.

Spell out First through Ninth when used as street names: 504 W. Fourth St.

Abbreviate Ave., Blvd., St. and points of the compass when part of a specific address: KUAF, 727 W. Dickson St., Fayetteville, AR 72701. Spell out street, boulevard and avenue when a street number is not used: Dickson Street or Arkansas Avenue. Always spell out other roadways: drive, circle, lane, road, way, etc.

Use the postal abbreviations for states and territories when giving full addresses.

Use periods in the abbreviation P.O. for post office box numbers.

Refer also to the highway designations, states and territories entries.


This guide uses the abbreviation adj. to identify the spelling of the adjectival form of words. Adjectives modify nouns.

Refer also to the hyphen entry for guidance on compound modifiers.


Do not capitalize. The word adjunct denotes someone who teaches at the university without permanent status as a faculty member. It also is occasionally used to show that a professor with faculty appointment in one academic department also teaches in a second department.


Lowercase: the university administration, the chancellor's administration, the Beebe administration or the Gearhart administration.

Administration Building

Built in 1969, the building code is ADMN. The building contains the offices of the chancellor, several vice chancellors including the provost, and the Honors College, among others.

Administrative Services Building

Built in 1983, the building code is ADSB.

admission, registration

Admission must be granted to the university before a student can register for classes.

Adohi Hall

This residence hall, opened in fall 2019, is made up of a common room and two wings. It is on Stadium Drive south of Pomfret Hall and east of Bud Walton Arena. The five-story complex provides housing for about 708 students and caters to those majoring in fields focused on architecture, interior design, landscape architecture, art, theatre, music and English. The building includes amenities such as a recording studio, art studio, gallery spaces, music practice rooms, dance studio and performance spaces. "Adohi" is a Cherokee word with several meanings, including "woods," "forest" and "timber." Preferred translation for university use is "woods." The name Adohi reflects the use of laminated timber for the major construction elements of the building.

Adohi Hall is open to all students and has about 708 beds. Its common building code is ADOR. The north wing is ADOA, the south wing ADOB and the common room is ADOC.

advanced placement

The national College Board offers classes and exams in 37 subjects for high school students who want to gain college credit before starting college. Capitalize the phrase when referring to the College Board's specific Advanced Placement Program. The abbreviation AP is trademarked by the College Board and widely recognized in academic circles but not readily recognizable by the general public, so try to avoid using it.


This guide uses the abbreviation adv. to identify the spelling of the adverbial form of words. Most words ending in -ly are adverbs.

An adverb is a modifier that modifies verbs, adjectives and other adverbs, usually by showing manner, condition, degree: She quickly assembled the crowd; a newly painted room; a highly attended lecture.

Don't use hyphens between adverbs ending in -ly and adjectives they modify: an easily remembered rule, a badly damaged building.

Refer also to the hyphen under the punctuation entry.

adverse, averse

Adverse means difficult or unfavorable: She forecasts adverse economic conditions. Averse means reluctant, resistant or opposed: He is averse to making a forecast.

adviser, advisory

Adviser is the preferred spelling to advisor, except when used in a proper name. For instance: the University of Arkansas Board of Advisors, but the academic adviser.

affect, effect

Affect, when used as a verb, means to act upon: The test score will affect his grade. It is also used as a noun on rare occasion, mostly in psychology to describe a feeling or emotion.

Effect, when used as a verb, means to cause: The provost will effect changes to the curriculum. When effect is used as a noun, it means a result or consequence: The effect was immediate, or the gift will have a lasting effect.


Refer also to the prefixes and suffixes entries.

African American

Preferred usage to describe the heritage of someone who has both African and American heritage or citizenship. Use without a hyphen, whether as a modifier or not. In racial or cultural contexts, such as enrollment comparisons, Black may be preferable. As with other ethnicities, follow a person’s preference.

Refer also to the ethnicity and race entry.


Do not use a hyphen after this prefix when it is used to form a noun: aftereffect, afterthought. Use a hyphen when after is used to form a compound modifier: after-dinner conversation.


Not afterwards.


This shortening of agriculture should not be used except in quoted matter. When using it, no apostrophe is needed: the ag teachers.


Always use figures for the ages of people: the 5-year-old boy, or the student is 19 years old.

ages of history

Refer also to the historical periods and events entry.

Agnes Blew Auditorium

This auditorium is in the School of Human Environmental Sciences Building. It seats 138 people. On second reference, Blew Auditorium is sufficient.

Agricultural Experiment Station

Refer also to the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station.

Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences Building

Built in 1955 with a second phase added in 1964, this building houses the offices of the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences, the Fayetteville office of the University of Arkansas System's vice president for agriculture and the offices of the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. It was originally called the Animal Science Building and still houses the department of animal science in its north wing. Its building code is AFLS.

Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences College

Refer also to the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences entry.

Agriculture Building

Built in 1927, the building is on the National Register of Historic Places. Its building code is AGRI.

Agriculture Annex

Originally called the Agricultural Hall, it was built in 1905 and opened in 1906 as the first home of what was then the newly created College of Agriculture. The Agriculture Annex is the second-oldest building still standing on campus, and it has also housed the home economics department and the infirmary. Its building code is AGRX.

Agri Farm

Refer also to the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center entry.

Agri Park

This recreational park on North Garland Avenue is part of the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center. It is operated by the University of Arkansas System's Division of Agriculture and includes a pavilion with kitchen facilities.

Air Force ROTC

Refer also to the Reserve Officers' Training Corps entry.


Use a hyphen: all-around winner, all-American athlete, all-star cast.

All-America, All-American

An individual student is named an All-American athlete: All-American Darren McFadden. Use All-America when referring to the team: She was named to the All-America basketball team.

all right

Two words. Not alright.

all time, all-time

Hyphenated, all-time is a compound modifier: all-time favorite. Use without a hyphen when not a compound modifier: McDonnell was the best track coach of all time. Avoid the redundant all-time record.

allusion, illusion

Allusion means an indirect reference: The allusion was to Fulbright's internationalism. The word illusion means an unreal or false impression: The set director created the illusion of 1930s Germany.

alma mater

The words are Latin and translate to "nourishing mother." The title of the University of Arkansas anthem is "Alma Mater," so put it in quotes and uppercase it when referring to the university song. Brody Payne, an alumnus, wrote the lyrics in 1909, and they were set to music by Henry D. Tovey, a professor of music. Lowercase when using generically: The professor's alma mater is Yale.

alpha code

The university uses alpha code abbreviations for a variety of purposes, such as designation of buildings, courses, degree programs and academic departments. For most purposes, use of the alpha code is unnecessary for press releases and marketing. In most cases, use the full name of the building or degree program.

When an alpha code is necessary, such as a mailing address for a campus building, capitalize all letters of the alpha code: ADMN for the Administration Building. For course designations, the alpha code should be followed by a space, the numeric code, a space and the course title: FDSC 2503 Food Safety and Sanitation.

Refer also to the entries on abbreviations and acronyms and course titles and numbers.

altar (n.), alter (v.)

An altar is a platform used in a religious services. To alter means to change.

Altheimer Laboratory

It is part of the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center and houses the department of crop, soil, and environmental sciences. On second reference, Altheimer Lab is sufficient. Its building code is ALTH.

Alumni House

Refer also to the Janelle Y. Hembree Alumni House.

alumnus, alumna, alumni, alumnae, alumnx

Alumnus is the Latin singular masculine form, and alumna is the singular feminine form. For the plural, alumni may be used either for an all-male group or for a mixed group. For an all-female group, use alumnae.

In recent years, a non-binary version of the Latin form has been proposed, alumnx, although it is still rare. If the subject of a story has a preference for it, though, follow their preference. The informal alum and alums are also possible options for non-gendered use, although they should be used with discretion because of their informality. The use of graduate or former student are other possible alternates depending on the context.

When denoting the degree and year of graduation for an alumnus, use the following form with no space between the degree abbreviation and the year of graduation: Linda Smith B.S.A.'09, M.S.'12 said.... If there is doubt about the century of graduation, use the full year: Her great-grandmother, Linda Smith B.S.A.1909, said....


  • Chancellor Gearhart is an alumnus of the university.
  • Mary King is an alumna of the College of Engineering.
  • Several university alumnae joined the Women's Giving Circle.
  • Five alumni of the 1964 football team will be honored Saturday.

The Arkansas Alumni Association does not limit membership to graduates, so writers should not assume that an alumnus is necessarily a graduate of the U of A.

Refer also to the Arkansas Alumni Association entry.

a.m., p.m.

Use lowercase with periods. Avoid the redundant 7 p.m. this evening.

Refer also to the time element entry.


Preferable in all references to radio transmission by amplitude modulation. For instance: The university's early radio broadcasts were via an AM station called KUOA.

American Association of University Professors

The Guerdon-Nichols Chapter of this national union represents faculty members at the University of Arkansas. On second reference, AAUP is allowed as a modifier: The AAUP president said ... .

Refer also to the Arkansas Public Employees Union entry.

American Indians, Native Americans

The Associated Press considers both terms acceptable in general references to two or more people of different tribal affiliations in the United States. At the university, give preference to Native American, unless using quoted material. As always follow a person’s preference when referring to individuals and be specific whenever possible: Native Americans have attended the university since at least 1876; Alumnus John Berrey, chair of the Quapaw Tribe, visited campus; or Cherokee students stopped on campus during a trip tracing one of the historic Trail of Tears routes.

Some tribes and tribal nations use the term member while others use citizen. If in doubt, use citizen. In Alaska, the Indigenous groups are collectively known as Alaska Natives.

During the last two decades, the phrase Indian Country has grown in use to describe the collective tribes and tribal nations of the United States. If using it, an explanation of it may be appropriate for readers who haven’t heard the term before.

The Associated Press recommends using the term Indian to describe the peoples and cultures of the Asian nation of India. Do not use it as shorthand for American Indians.

Refer also to the citizen, ethnicity and race, and native, Native entries.


Not amidst.

among, between

Generally, between introduces two items and among introduces more than two: The funds were divided among Bumpers College, Fulbright College and the College of Engineering.

However, between is the correct word when expressing relationships of three or more items considered one pair at a time: Collaboration is occurring between the professor and the French, German and Spanish classes.

Don't use amongst.


Do not use the ampersand as a substitute for the word "and" except when a company uses the ampersand as part of its formal name: AT&T, U.S. News & World Report.


Refer also to the Chi Omega Greek Theatre entry.

The gallery is on the fourth floor of the Arkansas Union.


This prefix refers to an English-speaking American. Capitalize it. No hyphen is necessary when combining with a lowercase word: Anglophile or Anglophone. Hyphenate when combining with a proper noun: Anglo-American or Anglo-Saxon.


Avoid such redundancies as first anniversary or one-year anniversary. Don't use anniversary for periods less than a year.


An event is not annual until it has occurred at least two years in a row. Do not use the term first annual. Instead, note that organizers plan to stage the event annually.

When referring to the yearbook, use lowercase: the Razorback annual.

ante-, anti-

The prefix ante- means to come before in order, rank or time: antebellum or antechamber. In general, no hyphen. The prefix anti- means opposed or against. Hyphenate all except for the following:

antibiotic antiparticle
antibody antipasto
anticlimax antiperspirant
antidepressant antiphon
antidote antiphony
antifreeze antiseptic
antigen antiserum
antihistamine antithesis
antiknock antitoxin
antimatter antitrust
antimony antitussive

anticipate, expect

Anticipate means to make preparations for the advent of something; expect does not connote preparation: They expect 8,000 fans at the game. They anticipated the large crowd by providing 9,000 seats.

anybody, any body, anyone, any one

Use one word for an indefinite reference: Anyone can enroll in the class; anybody could win. Use two words when emphasizing an individual of a group: Any one of the students may earn the top score; the chassis takes any body.


For contractions, use an apostrophe to show omitted letters: I've for I have, it's for it is, rock 'n' roll for rock and roll. Also use the apostrophe to show omitted numbers: the '20s for the 1920s, the Spirit of '76, the class of '04.

Use an apostrophe for plurals of a single letter: Mind your p's and q's. The Oakland A's. Do not use an apostrophe to show plurals of numbers or multiple-letter combinations: the 1960s, recite your ABCs.

Refer also to the possessives entry for use of an apostrophe to show possession.

application, app

The term application refers to a software program that runs within another service, such as a computer or phone. Use application on first reference: The university's phone application gives quick information. The shortened form, app, is acceptable on second reference.

Applied Sustainability Center

The Applied Sustainability Center coordinates research and education across the university campus regarding ways to meet current demands without compromising the needs of future generations. The center, established in 2007, is based in Sam M. Walton College of Business.


Deciding whether to put commas around a word, phrase or clause used in apposition depends on whether it is essential to the meaning of the sentence. Do not use commas for essential phrases; use commas for nonessential phrases.

Refer also to the essential clauses, nonessential clauses entry.

Arabic numerals

The numerical figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, etc., should be used except for denoting the sequence of wars or establishing a personal sequence for people or animals, such as King Henry VIII.

Refer also to the numerals and Roman numerals entries.

arboretum (s.), arboreta (pl.)

Three arboreta are maintained on campus by the department of facilities management: the Old Main Arboretum on the lawn surrounding Old Main; the Maple Hill Arboretum in the hollow to the west of the John W. Tyson Poultry Science Building; and the Oak Ridge Arboretum on the hillside west of the Administration Building and the Arkansas Union. About 480 trees are mapped and identified.

archaeology, archeology

The Associated Press prefers archaeology. Writers should note, though, the spellings for the Archeological Survey Building and the Arkansas Archeological Survey.

Archeological Survey Building

Built in 1999, this building houses the offices and collections of the Arkansas Archeological Survey and the University Museum collections. It is at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center, and its building code is ARAS.

Refer also to the Arkansas Archeological Survey entry.

architectural styles

Generally, names of architectural styles should be lowercased unless derived from a proper noun: American craftsman, art deco, baroque design, Bauhaus building, bungalow, classical, colonial revival, Corinthian column, cubism, Georgian style, Gothic, modern, modernist, neoclassical, Neoplatonism, postmodernist, Ozark modern, Prairie School, pre-Raphaelite, Romanesque architecture, romanticism.


The university has both a department of architecture and a school of architecture and design. The department offers two degree programs, a five-year professional program leading to a Bachelor of Architecture and a four-year program leading to a Bachelor of Science in architectural studies.

Architecture School

Refer to the Fay Jones School of Architecture and Design entry.

area codes

Refer to the telephone numbers entry.

area studies

Interdisciplinary study of geographical or cultural areas. Topics include the history, geography, politics, culture, language, and literature of the area. Generally, an area study is offered as a minor or second major.

Refer also to the minors and second major entries.


Arkansan is preferred when referring to inhabitants of Arkansas. It is also the word approved by resolution of the Arkansas General Assembly in 1881. Either Arkansawyer or Arkansian might be used in a quote or other colloquial context.


Arkansas became the 25th state of the United States of America in 1836. The word is believed to be of American Indian origins and is probably a French corruption of a word used by other upstream Indian nations to refer to the Quapaw, a nation of American Indians who lived across eastern and northern Arkansas.

Per Associated Press style, the possessive is Arkansas' with no "s" added. (The Arkansas General Assembly approved a resolution in 2007 to spell the possessive as Arkansas's.)


The name of the magazine of the Arkansas Alumni Association should be italicized in copy. It is published quarterly.

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station

This unit is based in the University of Arkansas System's Division of Agriculture and administers statewide research programs in agriculture and related sciences. In addition to its partnership with the University of Arkansas, the station conducts research at five research and extension centers, eight branch experiment stations and other campuses. Administrative offices are in the Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences Building.

Refer also to the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center and Division of Agriculture entries.

Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center

The center is located north of the main campus, spanning the east and west sides of North Garland Avenue near Interstate 540. It comprises about 525 acres of pasture, cropland and research facilities. Informally, it is often referred to as Agri Farm. Don't use the informal reference except in quotes.

The center is owned and operated by the University of Arkansas System's statewide Division of Agriculture, although some of the facilities also house academic programs for the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences. Two facilities - the Arkansas Archeological Survey and the Biomass Research Center - are not administered by the Division of Agriculture.

Refer also to the entries on the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, the Divison of Agriculture and the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences.

Arkansas Alumni Association

Although the university has had an alumni organization since the early part of the 20th century, the association was not organized as a nonprofit corporation until 1960. The association is a separate entity with its own board of directors, but the association's staffing is provided through the university. When necessary to show its separate incorporation, the abbreviation Inc. may be added to the end of the name: Arkansas Alumni Association Inc.

The association maintains chapters, which are tied to geographic areas: the Southern California Chapter, the Denver Chapter; and societies, which are tied to social or academic interests: the Black Alumni Society, the Razorback Band Alumni Society.

The association's offices are in the Janelle Y. Hembree Alumni House.

Arkansas Archeological Survey

Established by the state legislature in 1967, the Arkansas Archeological Survey is charged with preserving the state's heritage and providing the public with an understanding of that heritage. It is a unit of the University of Arkansas System, but is based at the University of Arkansas. When not referring specifically to this name, writers may use the older, traditional spelling of archaeology, the preferred spelling of the Associated Press.

Arkansas Bar Association

Be careful about abbreviating on second reference because of the similarly named American Bar Association.

Arkansas Biotechnology Center

The Arkansas Biotechnology Center is home to the university's herbarium. The center houses food-safety research efforts for the department of food science and the Agricultural Research Services Laboratories. It is based in the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences.

Arkansas Bookstore

Refer to the University of Arkansas Bookstore entry.

Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences

The center links numerous academic departments, including biological sciences, geosciences, mechanical engineering, and chemistry and biochemistry, to research space and planetary sciences. It is located in the Old Museum Building.

Arkansas Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit

The unit is a cooperative venture among the U.S. Geological Survey, the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, the university's department of biological sciences, and the Wildlife Management Institute. It was established in 1988.

Arkansas Department of Higher Education

This administrative department based in Little Rock oversees public higher education across the state. Department of Higher Education is sufficient if Arkansas has already been referenced. On second reference, ADHE is permissible as a modifier: The ADHE director.

Arkansas General Assembly

The state's legislature should be referred to as the Arkansas General Assembly on first reference. On second, legislature is preferred and should be capitalized when preceded by the state name or when referring specifically to the state's legislature: The Legislature met in Little Rock.

Arkansas High Performance Computing Center

The Arkansas High Performance Computing Center is the campuswide provider of supercomputing resources for research by students and faculty. The latest supercomputer in the center is called the Star of Arkansas, and it was ranked 339 among the world's 500 fastest supercomputers when it came online in 2008.

Arkansas Household Research Panel

The panel is a project of the university's department of marketing and logistics that surveys Arkansas households in quarterly questionnaires.

Arkansas Land & Life

This magazine is published twice a year by the University of Arkansas System's statewide Division of Agriculture and the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences. Its name should be italicized.

Arkansas Law Notes

Published annually by School of Law faculty for members of the Arkansas Bar Association, its name should be italicized.

Arkansas Law Review

This quarterly journal is published by law students in cooperation with the Arkansas Bar Association. Its name should be italicized.

Arkansas Leadership Academy

The academy is part of the College of Education and Health Professions and prepares leaders for the classroom and the boardroom.

Arkansas Natatorium

The Arkansas Natatorium is an indoor, eight-lane, 50-meter pool with a complete timing system and scoreboard. It is in the south end of the Health, Physical Education and Recreation Building. The diving pool has two one-meter boards, two three-meter boards, and a five- and 10-meter platform. It is used by the Razorback swimming and diving team for training and competition and by University Recreation during other periods for instruction, training and recreation by the general student populace.

Arkansas on Campus

This is the longest running series on UATV. It is produced weekly with news and events from around the campus. Italicize it.

Arkansas Poll

The Arkansas Poll is conducted annually and usually released in October. The poll surveys public opinion in Arkansas regarding political and social issues. Begun in 1999, the Arkansas Poll is sponsored by the Diane D. Blair Center of Southern Politics and Society.

Arkansas Public Employees Union

The Arkansas Public Employees Union, Local 965, which represents all employees at the University of Arkansas, is part of the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, a national labor union. Local 965 was chartered in 1962.

Refer also to the American Association of University Professors.

Arkansas Research and Technology Park

The technology park is in south Fayetteville and comprises the Engineering Research Center, the High-Density Electronics Center and the Innovation Center.

The Arkansas Traveler

The name of the university's student newspaper should be italicized. It started publication in 1906 as The University Weekly and changed its name in 1921 in anticipation of publishing more than once a week. Although its publication schedule ran more than daily during most of the 20th century, in the fall semester of 2009, the paper returned to a weekly paper edition while providing a daily edition via its online site.

Refer also to the student media entry.

Arkansas Union

The current student union was built in 1973. It contains the Verizon Ballroom, the Union Theatre, the Connections Lounge, the University of Arkansas Bookstore, the Center for Multicultural and Diversity Education, a U.S. post office, coffeehouse, food court, conference rooms and offices for a variety of student organizations. Its building code is ARKU.

Arkansas Water Resources Center

Established in 1964, the center supports research projects throughout Arkansas that examine water resources in the state.

Arkansas World Trade Center

Refer to the World Trade Center Arkansas.


Capitalize when referring to U.S. forces: Army ROTC, the U.S. Army, the Army. Do not use the abbreviation USA. Lowercase the forces of other nations: the British army.


Refer to the Reserve Officers' Training Corps entry.

Army ROTC Building

Built in 1925 as the Women's Gymnasium, the Army ROTC Building is on Maple Street. Its building code is ARMY.

arts and sciences

Refer to the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences entry.


Capitalize and italicize the names of works of art.

Refer also to the italics entry.

Asian American

Preferred usage to describe the heritage of someone who has Asian and American heritage or citizenship. Use without a hyphen, whether as a modifier or not. As with other ethnicities, be specific when possible and follow a person’s preference: She was born in Vietnam and became a naturalized citizen.

Refer also to the ethnicity and race entry.


University Information Technology Services offers help about computing tasks to campus members through an online service called AskIT.


Refer to the Arkansas General Assembly.


Do not abbreviate. Capitalize when part of a formal title before a name: Assistant Dean Mike Smith. Whenever possible, however, an appositional construction is usually easier to read: Mike Smith, the assistant dean of business.

Refer also to the titles entry.


Do not abbreviate. Capitalize when part of a formal title before a name: Associate Vice Chancellor Lynn Brown. Whenever possible, however, an appositional construction is usually easier to read: Lynn Brown, the associate vice chancellor for financial affairs.

Refer also to the titles entry.

associate degree

An associate degree is usually a two-year degree. The University of Arkansas does not award associate degrees, although it has in the past.

Associated Student Government

This is the governing organization of the student body at the University of Arkansas. It comprises an executive branch, a legislative branch and a judicial branch.
The executive branch includes a president, vice president, treasurer, secretary, senate chair and executive committee. The legislative branch includes the Student Senate, which has representatives from each of the colleges and schools, and legislative committees.The judicial branch is a nine-person judiciary board appointed by the ASG president and approved by the Student Senate.

On second reference, ASG is sufficient as a modifier: The ASG senators voted on the budget.

assure, ensure, insure

Assure means to give confidence: The professor assured the students.

Ensure means to guarantee: The team ensured victory with the extra touchdown.

Insure means to protect with financial insurance: Staff members can insure against the cost of illness through the university plan.

athlete (n.), athletics (n. and adj.), athletic (adj.)

Use athletics as a modifier for the department or administrators of the department: the athletics director. Use athletic as a modifier for describing performance and ability: the athletic jump of a gymnast.

athletics department

Refer to the Arkansas Razorbacks entry.

athletic venues

The following is a quick reference to athletic venues on campus. For more information, see individual entries.

Venue Name Seating
Arkansas Natatorium (swimming and diving) 1,500
Barnhill Arena (volleyball and gymnastics) 8,500
Baum-Walker Stadium at George Cole Field (baseball) 9,000
Billingsley Tennis Center -
Bogle Park (softball) 1,200
Bud Walton Arena (basketball) 19,200
Dills Indoor Tennis Center 1,000
Donald W. Reynolds Razorback Stadium (football) 72,000
John McDonnell Field (track and field) 7,000
Randal Tyson Track Center (track and field) 5,000
Razorback Field (soccer) 1,200


attorney, lawyer

In everyday use, the words have become interchangeable. Technically, an attorney is someone empowered to act on behalf of another, usually a lawyer, but not always. A lawyer is a person admitted to practice in a court system.


With regard to coursework, to audit a course is to take the course without grade or credit.

See also the credit, hours entry.

auditorium, auditoriums

For the plural, add an "s" rather than use the Latin auditoria. The following is a quick reference to some of the auditoriums, theaters and larger lecture halls on campus with the full name of the auditorium, the building in which it exists and its seating capacity. For more information, see individual entries.

Name Seats
Agnes Blew Auditorium, Human Environmental Sciences Building 138
Chi Omega Greek Theatre about 1,800
Donald W. Reynolds Center for Enterprise Development Auditorium 300
E.J. Ball Courtroom, Leflar Law Center 203
Engineering Hall Auditorium 138
First Security Auditorium, Willard J. Walker Hall 140
Gearhart Hall Auditorium (Room 26) 180
George W. Combs Memorial Auditorium, Bell Engineering Building about 260
Giffels Auditorium, Old Main about 300
Graduate Education Auditorium 130
Hillside Auditorium 487 and 290
H.L. Hembree Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences Auditorium 144
J.B. Hunt Transport Services Inc. Center for Academic Excellence Lecture Hall 177
Jim and Joyce Faulkner Performing Arts Center 570
Larry E. Coombes Memorial Auditorium, Plant Science Building 114
Leland Tollett Auditorium, John W. Tyson Building 172
Louis and Joy Ramsay Auditorium, Business Building 132
Room 101, Science Engineering Building 120
Room 102, Kimpel Hall 211
Room 105, Kimpel Hall 117
Room 110, Chemistry Building 180
Room 116, Business Building 142
Shollmier Lecture Hall, Vol Walker Hall 144
Stella Boyle Smith Concert Hall, Fine Arts Center 220
UA Black Box Theater, Global Campus Building 170
Union Theatre, Arkansas Union 294
University Theatre, Fine Arts Center 315
Verizon Ballroom, Arkansas Union 600



See seasons.


Abbreviate only when used with a numbered address: He lives at 302 N. College Ave. She lives on College Avenue.

See addresses.

average, mean, median, norm

An average is found by dividing the sum of several numbers by the quantity of numbers: The average of five numbers - 2, 5, 8, 13, 17 - is figured by adding them together to get 45 and dividing by 5, which gives 9.

The mean is similar and commonly designates a figure intermediate between two extremes by averaging the numbers: The mean temperature of a five-day period with temperatures of 8, 17, 13, 2 and 5 is 9.

The median is the middle number of points in a series arranged in order of size: The median score in the group of 2, 5, 8, 13 and 17 is 8.

Norm implies a standard of average performance for a given group: The freshman's score in reading comprehension was above the norm for first-year students.


Refer also to adverse.


Capitalize the names of awards: Outstanding Faculty Award.

awhile, a while

Awhile means "for a short time," so it is redundant to write: She lingered for awhile. Remove "for" if using awhile: She lingered awhile.

As a noun, while by itself means "an interval of time," so using "for" with it is not redundant: She lingered for a while.



Synonymous with bachelor's degree.

bachelor's degree

Lowercase. Acceptable as an informal reference to any undergraduate degree.

Refer also to the academic degrees entry.

back up (v.), backup (n. and adj.)

Keep as two words when used as a verb: The car will back up and then stop. Use as one word as a noun or a modifier: The backup singer.


Not backwards.


One word. Front yard, however, is two words.

bad, badly

Do not use bad as an adverb. However, bad does not lose its adjectival status in a sentence such as I feel bad. The alternative, I feel badly, sounds as though the sense of touch is bad.

Refer also to the good, well entry.

ballclub, ballpark, ballplayer, ballroom

Most combinations are one word. However, ball game, ball boy, ball girl and ball club are two words.


Not barbeque or Bar-B-Q.

Barnhill Arena

Built in 1955 and extensively enlarged in 1978, Barnhill Arena was named for John Barnhill, the university's head football coach and later director of athletics from 1946 to 1970. With the opening of Bud Walton Arena in 1994, it became the primary venue for women's athletics and was renovated to its current configuration. It is home to the women's volleyball and gymnastics teams. Barnhill is sufficient on second reference. Its building code is JBAR.

baseball stadium

Refer to the Baum-Walker Stadium at George Cole Field entry.


Refer to the Business and Administrative Strategic Information Systems entry.

Baum-Walker Stadium at George Cole Field

Built in 1996, it is home to the men's baseball team. Baum-Walker Stadium is sufficient on second reference. It was named for the Baum and Walker families, benefactors of the university. Its building code is BBSA.

B.C., B.C.E.

The Associated Press says that B.C. is acceptable in all references to a calendar year in the period before Christ; however, university writers should note that some academic disciplines use the abbreviation B.C.E., or before the common era, to denote the same time period. Because the full spelling would be in the year 43 before Christ, or in the year 43 before the common era, the abbreviations B.C. and B.C.E. are placed after the year: 43 B.C. or 43 B.C.E.

Refer also to the A.D., C.E., and historical periods and events entries.

because, since

Use because to show a relationship of cause and effect: He raised the flag because he was ordered to do so.
Since may be used to show causation when the first event in a sequence led logically to the second but was not its direct cause: She raised the flag since she was nearest it.

Bell Engineering Center

Built in 1987, Bell Engineering is home to the College of Engineering. It is named for the family of Melvyn L. Bell, an alumnus and benefactor. It is connected by skywalks to the Engineering Hall and to the Science-Engineering Building. Its building code is BELL.


A bellwether is a ram that leads other sheep, and the word has come to mean any person, idea or event that is on the leading edge of a trend.

beside, besides

Beside means alongside. Besides means moreover or furthermore.

Bessie Boehm Moore Center for Economic Education

The center was established in 1978 and named for Moore, a leading economic educator. It provides public school teachers with training and instructional materials to teach economics better in public schools. It is part of the Sam M. Walton College of Business.

best seller (n.), best-selling (adj.)

Examples: The book is a best seller. It landed on the best-selling list.


Refer to the among, between entry.

Bev Lewis Center for Women's Athletics

Built in 2003, the center is named for Bev Lewis, a long-time coach and athletic director. It contains training facilities for the women's athletic teams. Bev Lewis Center is sufficient on second reference. Its building code is BLCA.

biannual, biennial

Biannual means twice a year and is synonymous with semiannual. Biennial means every two years: State elections are conducted biennially.

Billingsley Tennis Center

The 10 outdoor tennis courts are south of Dills Indoor Tennis Center. Originally called Varsity Outdoor Tennis Center, it was renamed for benefactor George M. Billingsley in 2008 after renovation and expansion. The center offers about 117 chairback seats overlooking the outdoor courts as well as bleachers between the courts. It serves the men's and women's tennis teams. The building code is TENN.


A thousand million.

For its forms, refer to the millions, billions entry.


It means every other month. Semimonthly means twice a month.

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Laboratory

The laboratory is part of the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center, and its building code is BAEL.

Biomass Research Center

The center houses a food safety laboratory, including a hybridoma laboratory, an agricultural research services laboratory and museum curatorial laboratories.

biracial (adj.), multiracial (adj.)

Either term is acceptable, when clearly relevant to a story, as a modifier to describe people who have more than one racial heritage. Be specific when possible when writing about individuals: His father is African American and his mother is white. The term multiracial can apply to people of any number or combination of races.

Refer also to the ethnicity and race entry.


It means every other week. Semiweekly means twice a week.

Black(s), white(s) (n.)

Do not use either term as a singular noun. For plurals, use such phrasings as Black students, white students, Black professors, and white professors but only when clearly relevant to the story. The plural nouns Blacks and whites may be acceptable when space or sentence construction are affected: Enrollment for the fall showed the breakdown of Blacks, whites, Asians, Latinx, Indigenous and students who identify as more than one race. The use of Black and white as adjectives are acceptable when relevant.

Do not use other pejorative colors such as red, mulatto or yellow to describe people.

Refer also to the ethnicity and race entry.

Black (adj.)

When pertinent to a story, use this adjective in a racial, ethnic or cultural sense: Black community, Black students, Black literature, Black faculty.

Writers should be aware that race is a social and cultural construct rather than a biological one.

Black is not interchangeable with African American, which describes a person’s familial heritage and nationality. As with other ethnicities, follow a person’s preference.

Refer also to the ethnicity and race entry.


Refer to the disabled, handicapped, impaired entry.


Capitalize only when an integral part of a proper name: Board of Advisors, Board of Trustees, the board.

Refer also to the capitalization entry.

Board of Advisors

The board is a subsidiary of the University of Arkansas Foundation and was formed in 2006 as the successor to the National Development Council and the Campaign for the Twenty-First Century Steering Committee. It plays a leadership role in the university's advancement and fundraising efforts. Refer to individuals on the board as board members rather than as advisors.

Board of Trustees

The 10-member board is the governing organization for all the universities and community colleges in the University of Arkansas System. The governor appoints one trustee each year to a 10-year term. Capitalize whenever referring to the University of Arkansas Board of Trustees; lowercase when either board or trustees is used separately: The Board of Trustees approved the plan. The trustees will meet again Tuesday.

Refer also to the University of Arkansas System entry.

Bogle Exhibit Hall

This hall is on the fifth floor of Old Main and contains museum exhibits and Spring, a sculpture by artist Anita Huffington.

Bogle Park

The university's softball stadium opened for the 2008-09 school year. The facility includes 1,200 seats and six skyboxes. It is named for the Bogle family, benefactors to the university. Its building code is BOGL.


A bond is a certificate issued by a corporation or the government stating the amount of a loan, the interest to be paid, the time for repayment and the collateral pledged if payment cannot be made. Use lowercase unless part of a proper name: College Bond Program.

book titles

Refer to the composition titles entry.

Botany Greenhouse

Built in 1977, the greenhouse stood at the southwest corner of Dickson Street and Duncan Avenue. It was removed in 2013 and replaced by Champions Hall.


Abbreviated as Blvd. when used with a numbered address.

Refer to the addresses entry.

bowl games

Capitalize the names of bowl games: Cotton Bowl, Rose Bowl, Capital One Bowl.

box office (n.), box-office (adj.)

The university has a box office in the Fine Arts Center to sell tickets for University Theatre productions.

Boyer Center for Student Services

This center in the College of Education and Health Professions provides advising services for undergraduate students of the college.


The Associated Press cannot transmit brackets [ ] to its media subscribers, so it converts brackets to parentheses. Brackets are traditionally used by a writer to add clarification or explanation to quoted material: The professor said, "No more [final exams] will be given," for an instance in which the professor really said, "No more will be given." The Associated Press uses parentheses instead.

brand names

Use them when they are essential to the story and capitalize them.

Refer also to the trademark entry.

Brough Commons

Refer also to the 1021 W. Dickson entry.

Broyles Athletic Center

Refer to the Frank Broyles Athletic Center entry.

Buchanan-Droke Hall

Built in 1954, Buchanan-Droke Hall was named for John L. Buchanan, a former president of the university, and George Wesley Droke, a longtime professor and former dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. A men's residence hall, since demolished, was previously named Buchanan Hall. Buchanan-Droke's building code is BUCH.

Bud Walton Arena

Built in 1993, Bud Walton Arena is home to the men's and women's basketball teams. Its capacity is 19,200 people. Walton Arena is sufficient on second reference. In 2019, the Board of Trustees named the basketball court itself in honor of former head basketball coach Nolan Richardson III, who led the team to its first national championship in 1994. Its building code is WALT.

Bud Walton Hall

Built in 1957, it was originally called Wilson Sharp House and was used as a residential hall for student athletes. It was expanded significantly in 1987 and renamed in honor of Bud Walton, a Walmart executive and the brother of Sam M. Walton. Its building code is WLTN.

building names

Most buildings on the university campus are named for former administrators, professors or benefactors. Use the full name of the honoree on first reference for relatively new buildings: Lewis E. Epley Jr. Band Building, Donald W. Reynolds Razorback Stadium or the Bev Lewis Center for Women's Athletics. A shorter form is often sufficient on second reference: Epley Band Building, Razorback Stadium or Lewis Center. For older buildings on campus, the commonly known name is usually sufficient: Hotz Hall, Gibson Annex or Pomfret Hall.

Capitalize Building or Hall as part of the name.

Writers should be aware of similarly named buildings and use full names throughout in those instances: Don't confuse Vol Walker Hall with Willard J. Walker Hall or Bud Walton Arena (the basketball stadium) with Bud Walton Hall (a residence hall) or Razorback Field with Razorback Stadium.

For building abbreviations, the department of facilities management assigns a four-letter abbreviation for each building in coordination with the users of the building. See each building's name for the abbreviation.

In most cases, do not abbreviate: Room 815, Hotz Hall, or Administration Building 415. Make exceptions when space or organization of material is paramount, such as on a map or in tabular material. Use the building abbreviation for mailing addresses: Student Affairs, ADMN 325, 1 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701.

Refer also to the individual names of buildings, addresses and room numbers.

Bumpers College

Refer to the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences.

buses, busses

Buses are transit vehicles. Busses are kisses. The verb forms of the former: bus, bused, busing. And the verb forms of the latter: buss, bussed, bussing.

Refer also to the Razorback Transit entry.

Business and Administrative Strategic Information Systems

This is a computing system that integrates numerous administrative functions including human resources and university finances. On second reference, BASIS is acceptable.

Refer also to the Integrated Student Information System.

Business Building

Built in 1978 and originally named the Business Administration Building, the Business Building houses offices and classrooms of the Sam M. Walton College of Business and several research centers. Built in 1978, its building code is WCOB.


In general, no hyphen: bylaws, bypass, byproduct.



The students who participate in the Army ROTC and Air Force ROTC are referred to as cadets. Capitalize when used as a proper title in front of someone's name: Cadet Michelle Smith. Lowercase when it is used generically: Four cadets provided a color guard for the Razorback game.

calendar year

Runs from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31.

Refer also to the academic year and fiscal year entries.

calling the Hogs

Refer to the Hog Call.

call letters

Use all caps. Use hyphens to separate the type of station from the base call letters: KUAF-FM, KXUA-FM, UATV. Citizens band and shortwave stations use a combination of letters and numbers: KTE9136, K2LRX.

Refer also to the radio station and television station entries.

Campaign Arkansas

The name of the university's current capital campaign should be capitalized when used in full. The word campaign should be lowercase when it stands alone.

Campaign for the Twenty-First Century

Spell out Twenty-First for the name of this fundraising campaign, which ended in 2005 with more than $1 billion raised.

Refer also to  the century entry.


Lowercase unless it is part of a proper name, such as the Global Campus.

Campus Council

Campus Council comprises representatives from the Faculty Senate, Staff Senate and Student Senate. It governs internal campus affairs.

Refer also to the Campus Faculty.

Campus Crossfire

This debate series is produced by UATV. Italicize its name.

Campus Faculty

Campus Faculty is an organization comprising all professors who have at least half-time faculty appointments and are either tenured or on a tenure track at the University of Arkansas. Campus Faculty meets regularly once each semester. Officers include a chair, vice chair, secretary and parliamentarian. The chair and vice chair of Campus Faculty are the chair-elect and vice chair-elect, respectively of Faculty Senate.

Refer also to the faculty and Faculty Senate entries.

Campus Walk

Campus Walk is a broad brick-covered walk that runs south from the Pi Beta Phi Gate to the entrance of Bell Engineering. It covers a former street, called Campus Drive, that ran past Old Main and Vol Walker and curved southeastward to intersect Dickson Street at its intersection with Duncan Avenue. The main interior walkway through Bell Engineering approximates the old street as well.


No hyphen.

cancel, canceled, canceling, cancellation

Use single "l" for most cases.


One word.

canvas, canvass

Canvas is heavy cloth. Canvass is a noun or verb denoting a survey.

capital, Capitol

In the geographic sense, capital refers to the city where a seat of government is located. Do not capitalize: The capital of Arkansas is Little Rock. In the financial sense, capital describes money, equipment or property used in a business.

The proper name of the government building in which the legislature meets is Capitol. Use U.S. Capitol when referring to the building in Washington, D.C., and the Arkansas Capitol when referring to the building in Little Rock.


Avoid unnecessary capitals when possible. Use a capital letter as listed below.

See individual entries in this book for capitalization guidelines. If there is no relevant listing in this guide, consult Webster's New World Dictionary.

Capitalize proper nouns that constitute identification of a specific person, place or thing: David, Lisa, America, Fayetteville, Ozarks. Some common nouns become proper nouns when used as the name of a particular entity: International Business Machines, Standard Oil.

Capitalize common nouns such as party, river, street and west when they are part of a proper name: Green Party, West Fork of the White River, Dickson Street. Generally, lowercase common nouns in subsequent references when they stand alone.

Lowercase the common noun elements of names in all plural uses: Maple and Dickson streets, lakes Wilson and Sequoyah.

Popularized names should be capitalized: Shulertown, the Hill.

Refer also to the titles entry and individual entries.


Refer also to the capital, Capitol entry.


Lowercase when referring to a team captain.

Refer also to the military titles entry.

captions and cutlines

In common usage, captions and cutlines are synonomous. In publishing argot, a caption is a small headline teasing the cutline below it.

Generally captions and cutlines should include information that a photo cannot convey: such as the names of people or places pictured and any context or backgroud not visible. In print pieces, cutlines have a higher readership than all other elements except headlines or titles, so write them with as much forethought as a story.

Refer also to the headlines and titles entry.

Career Development Center

The center advises students about how to pursue a career after they graduate, including trends in the job market and developing a resume.


One word.

Carlson Terrace

Designed by the renowned architect Edward Durell Stone and built in 1958, Carlson Terrace provided residential housing for married and international students as well as storage south of present-day Bud Walton Arena. The complex was demolished in stages during 2005 and 2007.

Carnall Hall

Refer to the Inn at Carnall Hall.

Carver Center

Refer to the entry on Lynn and Joel Carver Center for Public Radio.

catalog of studies

The university annually publishes three catalogs of studies — an undergraduate Catalog of Studies, the Graduate Catalog and the School of Law Catalog of Studies — that outline the academic regulations and requirements expected of students who pursue degrees at the University of Arkansas. Capitalize and italicize when using the name of a catalog.


Avoid the use of Caucasian as a synonym for white unless in a quotation.

Refer also to the Blacks, whites and building names entries.


Refer to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


This abbreviation for common era may be used instead of the abbreviation A.D. when an academic discipline uses C.E. as its standard reference. If using C.E. in place of A.D., writers may need to explain the abbreviation if context is unclear. In most cases, neither abbreviation is necessary. Readers assume years are C.E. and A.D. unless context suggests otherwise. If using C.E., place it after the year: 96 C.E.

Refer also to the B.C., B.C.E. and A.D. entries.


Use this term rather than centigrade for the metric temperature scale, named for the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius. In Celsius temperature, zero degrees is the freezing point of water and 100 degrees is the boiling point at sea level.

To convert to Fahrenheit, multiply a Celsius temperature by 9, divide by 5 and add 32. (25 degrees Celsius times 9 equals 225, divided by 5 equals 45, plus 32 equals 77 degrees Fahrenheit.)

When giving a Celsius temperature, use these forms: 40 degrees Celsius or 40 C if degrees and Celsius are clear from the context.

Refer also to Fahrenheit and Kelvin.


Capitalize center when it is part of a proper name. Lowercase otherwise. Brief descriptions of official University of Arkansas centers and research units are included in this guide. Consult the Catalog of Studies for more detailed descriptions. If the center is attached to an academic unit, include that information. Some centers are based within a department while others are college- or school-level centers.

Writers should be aware that official research centers of the university go through an approval process and are listed with the Arkansas Department of Higher Education.

Center for Advanced Computing and Communications Research

Housed in the department of computer science and computer engineering, the center engages in research that benefits national and international computing and communications.

Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies

The center, established in 1991, offers students, faculty, and the public opportunities to learn about the various applications of geographic information systems. Center technologies include geographic positioning systems, remote sensing, photogrammetry and geospatial databases. On second reference, CAST is sufficient. It is based in the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences.

Center for Arkansas and Regional Studies

The center is a multidisciplinary program based in the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences. It encourages research about life and culture in Arkansas.

Center for Business and Economic Research

The center is part of the Sam M. Walton College of Business and provides research for local and state government. It maintains several database libraries of economic and financial information as well.

Center for Communication and Media Research

The center studies interpersonal, group, organizational and media communication. It is based in the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences.

Center for Continuing Education

Refer also to the Global Campus entry.

Center for Corporate and Employee Wellness

The center provides educational services and research-based programs for the health and wellness of employees of public and private organizations. It is based in the department of health science, kinesiology, recreation and dance in the College of Education and Health Professions.

Center for Educational Access

Formerly called the Center for Students with Disabilities, this center is administered by the Division of Student Affairs and provides advice to students with disabilities as well as to the campus community about necessary improvements in the infrastructure of the campus.

Center for Engineering Logistics and Distribution

The center is based in the university's department of industrial engineering and provides integrated solutions to logistics problems. On second reference, CELDi is permissible.

Center for Innovation in Healthcare Logistics

The center was founded in March 2007 to improve the supply chain and flow of materials in health care operations, especially those that can be addressed with improved information and logistics systems. It is based in the College of Engineering.

Center for Management and Executive Education

Based in the Sam M. Walton College of Business, the center provides training for executives and middle managers.

Center for Mathematics and Science Education

Refer to the University of Arkansas Center for Mathematics and Science Education.

Center for Multicultural and Diversity Education

This center is based on the fourth floor of the Arkansas Union and is part of the Division of Student Affairs. It enhances students' academic lives and prepares them for life in a diverse society, providing cross-cultural interaction for students in educational, cultural and social programs.

Center for Protein Structure and Function

Based in the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences, the center sponsors faculty and student research on the folded structures of protein molecules. It has been funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health.

Center for Retailing Excellence

The center, based in the Sam M. Walton College of Business, promotes research and student interest in the retail profession.

Center for Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructures

Funded by the National Science Foundation, the center is a joint project of the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences and the College of Engineering at the University of Arkansas and the University of Oklahoma. The center's mission is to develop ways to create and probe structures on the nanometer scale, study their individual and collective dynamics, and explore their use in next generation electronic, optical and chemical systems.

Center for Sensing Technology and Research

The center was founded in 1999 and provides multidisciplinary research and development of highly specific and highly sensitive sensors. The departments of electrical engineering, poultry science, and chemistry and biochemistry participate in its program.

Center for Social Research

Established in 1992, the center provides social research to government agencies, communities and businesses. It is based in the department of sociology in the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences.

Center for the Utilization of Rehabilitation Resources for Education, Networking, Training and Service

The full name of this center should be used on first reference. This center is based at Hot Springs and has an office, the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center for People Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing, at the University of Arkansas. On second, the Center for Rehabilitation Resources is sufficient.

Center of Excellence for Poultry Science

Established in 1992 and headquartered in the John W. Tyson Poultry Science Building, the center provides multidisciplinary research, teaching and extension programs of the university and the University of Arkansas System's statewide Division of Agriculture. It includes the John W. Tyson Poultry Science Building and facilities at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center, including the John K. Skeeles Poultry Health Laboratory, a feed mill, hatchery and poultry production houses. It also includes the Applied Broiler Research Unit at the Division of Agriculture's Savoy Research Station, west of Fayetteville.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The centers are based in Atlanta and are the U.S. Public Health Service's national agencies for control of infectious and other preventable diseases. On second reference, CDC is acceptable, and it takes a singular verb.


Refer to the Celsius entry.


One-hundredth of a meter, a centimeter is almost the width of a AA battery. There are 10 millimeters in a centimeter.

Central Quad

Also sometimes referred to as the Union mall or plaza, this public space is bounded by the Arkansas Union, the Fine Arts Center, Mullins Library and the Leflar Law Center. Because the name is relatively new, writers may need to add a geographic location: The Central Quad, between the Arkansas Union and Mullins Library.


Spell out the word, lowercase and use figures for amounts less than a dollar: 8 cents, 60 cents. Use the dollar sign and decimal system for amounts larger than a dollar: $1.07, $4.50.


Lowercase and spell out numbers less than 10: the second century, the 19th century.

For proper names, follow the organization's preference, including the university's use of proper names for the Campaign for the Twenty-First Century and the endowed titles created during that campaign: Mary Jones, holder of the Twenty-First Century Endowed Chair.

Refer also to the entries for academic titles and the Campaign for the Twenty-First Century.

Ceramics Studio

The Ceramics Studio is at 326 S. Eastern Ave. It was built in 2004 and is administered by the School of Art. Its building designation is CERM.


In addition to degree programs, some departments offer programs leading to certification in a specialized subject. Lowercase the name of such programs: the certificate program in educational policy studies. Capitalize the full name of the certificate offered by such a program: She earned a Graduate Certificate in Educational Program Evaluation.

Undergraduate Certificates

  • Food Safety Manager Certificate of Proficiency
  • Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Coordinator Certificate of Proficiency

Graduate Certificates

  • Graduate Certificate in Advanced Instrument Performance
  • Graduate Certificate in African and African American Studies
  • Graduate Certificate in Applied Behavior Analysis
  • Graduate Certificate in Arkansas Curriculum/Program Administrator
  • Graduate Certificate in Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Graduate Certificate in Bioenergy and Sustainable Technology
  • Graduate Certificate in Building-Level Administration
  • Graduate Certificate in Business
  • Graduate Certificate in Business Law
  • Graduate Certificate in Criminal Law
  • Graduate Certificate in Cross-Sector Alliances
  • Graduate Certificate in District-Level Administration
  • Graduate Certificate in Educational Measurement
  • Graduate Certificate in Educational Program Evaluation
  • Graduate Certificate in Educational Psychology
  • Graduate Certificate in Educational Statistics and Research Methods
  • Graduate Certificate in Enterprise Systems
  • Graduate Certificate in Entrepreneurship
  • Graduate Certificate in Geospatial Technologies
  • Graduate Certificate in Gerontology
  • Graduate Certificate in Project Management
  • Graduate Certificate in Public Service (via the Clinton School)
  • Graduate Certificate in STEM Education for Early Childhood
  • Graduate Certificate in Sustainability
  • Graduate Certificate in Technical Writing and Public Rhetorics


Refer to the chief executive officer entry.

chair, chairman, chairwoman

The Associated Press recommends capitalizing when either chairman or chairwoman is used as a formal title before a name: Chairman Bill Brown, Chairwoman Mary Smith. It recommends not capitalizing casual, temporary positions: meeting chairman Joe Jones.

The Associated Press is silent about the use of chair as a gender-free option, but the University of Arkansas Stylebook recommends its use equivalently: Chair Bill Brown, Chair Mary Smith. Lowercase when used in the appositive: Bill Brown, chair of the history department.

Writers should note that some academic departments have heads rather than chairs.

Capitalize when giving the title of an endowed chair: the Edwin and Karlee Bradberry Chair in Information Systems. Use the name of endowed chairs in the appositive: professor Amy Farmer, the Margaret Gerig and R.S. Martin Jr. Chair in Business.

Refer also to the heads entry.

Champions Hall

This academic building is at the southwest corner of Dickson Street and Duncan Avenue. The 62,000-square-foot hall will serve as home for university's Math Resource and Testing Center, an academic support program, and contain biology labs, classrooms and offices. It was open for classes in summer 2015 and dedicated in September 2015.


Chancellor is the chief administrative officer at each campus in the University of Arkansas System. The position, which was created in 1981 and first filled in 1982, answers to the president of the system. Pryor to 1982, the president was the chief administrative officer of the campus. When using modifiers prior to the formal title — such as acting, current, former, interim, past, or then- — lower case them. Capitalize the title when used in front of someone's name: former Chancellor Joseph E. Steinmetz; interim Chancellor Charles Robinson.

Year Chancellor
1982-1983 B.A. Nugent
1984-1985 Willard Gatewood
1986-1997 Daniel Ferritor
1997-2008 John A. White
2008-2015 G. David Gearhart
2016-2021 Joseph E. Steinmetz
Refer also to the president entry.

chancellor's list

Always lowercase.

chancellor's residence

Refer to the Wallace W. and Jama M. Fowler House entry.


Capitalize as part of the name of an alumni chapter: Greater Kansas City Chapter, San Francisco Bay Area Chapter. Alumni chapters are organized by geographic region. Alumni societies are affinity groups.

Also capitalize chapter when it is used with a numeral: She edited Chapter 1; he filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. Lowercase otherwise.


This private company manages the dining and catering services at the university. It is a division of the Compass Group, an international company based in Great Britain. Operations include:

  • 1021 W. Dickson, the dining hall connected to Founders Hall
  • Café Tusk, an on-campus food truck
  • Club Red convenience stores
  • coffee shop, Hunt Center for Academic Excellence
  • Northwest Quad Dining Hall
  • The Parking Spot, Harmon Avenue Parking Facility
  • Peabody Perks, Peabody Hall
  • Pomfret Honors Quarters Dining Hall
  • RZ's Coffeehouse, Arkansas Union
  • Union Market Food Court, Arkansas Union
  • Walter B. Cole Cafe, Willard J. Walker Hall

The coffee house at the Leflar Law Center is not operated by Chartwells. It is operated by Arsaga's.

Chemistry-Biochemistry Research Building

Built in 1994, its building code is CHBC.

Chemistry Building

Built in 1935, the Chemistry Building was renovated and reopened in 2007. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and its building code is CHEM.

chief executive officer

The Associated Press allows the use of CEO as a first reference but says to spell out the title somewhere in the story. Do not abbreviate chief financial officer or chief operating officer.

chief justice

Capitalize when used as a formal title before a name: Arkansas Chief Justice Jim Hannah. Lowercase otherwise.


In general, refer to children 15 or younger by their first names on second reference. The Associated Press recommends using the last name, however, if the seriousness of the story calls for it, as in a murder case. For ages 16 and 17, use judgment, but generally use the surname unless it's a light story. Use the surname for those 18 and older. Generally, avoid the use of kids as a synonym.

Chi Omega Fountain

This fountain is at the east entrance of the Arkansas Union. It was donated by the Chi Omega Sorority.

Chi Omega Chapter House

This sorority house is one of 11 buildings on campus named to the National Register of Historic Places. The national Chi Omega Sorority was established at the University of Arkansas in 1895 and the chapter house was built on Maple Street in 1928.

Chi Omega Greek Theatre

Built in 1930, the Chi Omega Greek Theatre was modeled on an ancient Dionysian theater in Athens and donated by the national Chi Omega Sorority in honor of its founding chapter. It seats about 1,800 people. It is one of 11 campus buildings on the National Register of Historic Places.

Of note, the theater includes the words knowledge, integrity, courage, culture and intelligence, engraved in the frieze of the entablature that sweeps around the rear of the orchestra, held aloft by 14 columns. Tablets across the front of the theater give the last names of Chi Omega's founders: Ina May Boles, Jobelle Holcombe, Dr. Charles Richardson, Alice Simonds and Jean Vincenheller.

On second reference, Greek Theatre is sufficient. Its building code is COGT.

Refer also to the theater, theatre entry.


This term refers to people whose gender identity matches their sex assigned at birth. For example, someone who identifies as a woman and was assigned female at birth is a cisgender woman. Generally, a person’s gender identity is unnecessary for most stories.

Refer also to the gender and transgender entries.

cities and towns

The Associated Press generally requires cities to be followed by the state designation on first reference unless the story has been clearly referenced to a particular state. Some cities are so well known that a state designator is unneeded. Consult datelines in the Associated Press Stylebook for a list of cities that stand alone. Because University of Arkansas media releases are distributed well beyond the state borders, add Ark. to the dateline: LITTLE ROCK, Ark., or FAYETTEVILLE, Ark. The state designation is unneeded for Arkansas cities in the rest of the story if datelined from Arkansas.

Refer also to entries on city and states.

citizen, resident, subject, national, native

A citizen is a person who has acquired the full civil rights of a nation either by birth or naturalization. Cities and states in the United States do not confer citizenship. To avoid confusion, use resident when referring to inhabitants of states and cities.

Citizen is also acceptable when referring to those in the United Kingdom or other monarchies where the term subject is often used.

National is applied to a person residing away from the nation in which he or she is a citizen, or to a person under the protection of a specified nation: The music professor is a French national.

Native is the term denoting that a person was born in a given location.

Refer also to the ethnicity and race entry.


Capitalize city when part of a proper name or a regularly used nickname: Kansas City, New York City, the Windy City.

Lowercase elsewhere: an Arkansas city, city government, the city of Fayetteville.

Refer also to the cities and towns entry.

Clark Hall

Built as part of the Northwest Quad in 2004, the northwest building of the quad was renamed the Clark Hall in honor of Margaret Clark, one of the first two African American professors at the University of Arkansas. Clark Hall is open to all students and has about 189 beds. Its building code is CLKR.


When using class to refer to undergraduate students who have the same academic classification, use lowercase in general references: the sophomore class, the senior class. Capitalize when referring to a graduating class: the Class of 2026 or the 2026 Class.

Academic standing is determined by number of hours completed toward an academic degree:

  • Freshman — less than 30 hours
  • Sophomore — 30 or more hours but less than 60
  • Junior — 60 or more hours but less than 90
  • Senior — 90 or more hours

class, course, section

Class, the collective noun used for a group of students enrolled in the same section of a course, is often used as a synonym for both course and section, but the latter two words have a more precise meaning.

A course can mean either a specific subject of instruction or, more broadly, a program of instruction: The professor teaches the American literature course. The student is pursuing an independent course of study.

Section refers to a specific instance in which a group of students enrolls in a specific course: The professor teaches two sections of the American literature course.

Refer also to the course titles and student standing entries.


Capitalize when referring to the study of Classical Rome and Greece but lowercase otherwise: Classical studies, classical music, classical economics.

class gift


classroom, classwork

Also classbook and classmate. Hyphenate class-action as a compound modifier: The class-action lawsuit.

Clay Studio

The Clay Studio is operated by the department of facilities management and is located on Eastern Avenue. Its building code is CLAY.

clean up (v.), clean-up (n. and adj.)

Examples: He will clean up the mess. She bats clean-up.

Clinton House Museum

This house at 940 W. California Blvd. is the home in which Bill Clinton and Hillary Rodham were married in 1975 and where they first lived together while teaching law at the University of Arkansas. The university purchased the house in 2005, and it is operated as a museum by the Fayetteville Advertising and Promotion Commission.

Clinton School of Public Service

Based in Little Rock and part of the University of Arkansas System, the Clinton School and the University of Arkansas offer a master's degree in public service in which some classwork is completed in Fayetteville and some in Little Rock. Its faculty include professors from several system campuses. On second reference, Clinton School is sufficient.


Avoid using this word when classes are dismissed because of weather. Many of the university's functions continue operating, including residence halls and dining halls, even if classes are dismissed. Explain which operations are affected and which are not.


Retain the hyphen when forming words that indicate occupation or status: co-author, co-chairman, co-sponsor, co-worker. Eliminate the hyphen for other combinations: coed, coexist, cohabit, cooperate, coordinate.


Lowercase in all uses as a job description. It is not a formal title.


Short for coeducational, it is permissible to use this term to show dual use by women and men: Yocum Hall is a coed residential hall. Do not use the term as shorthand for a female student.

coffee shop

Two words.

Cold War

Capitalize when referring to the late-20th century political confrontation between the United States and the former Soviet Union.

collective nouns

Nouns that denote a unit take singular verbs and pronouns: class, faculty, family, group, herd, jury, orchestra, staff, team. Examples include: The faculty is meeting. The jury reached its verdict. The herd of cattle was sold.

Refer also to the faculty and staff.


Capitalize when it is part of the name of a specific college, such as the College of Engineering. Lowercase when it stands alone: The college offers nine majors. Colleges at the University of Arkansas:

  • College of Education and Health Professions
  • College of Engineering
  • Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences
  • Honors College
  • Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences
  • Sam M. Walton College of Business
Refer also to the schools entry and individual entries for each college.

College of Education and Health Professions

Do not reduce the name to its abbreviation. Do not shorten the name to the College of Education except in instances in which the former name of the college is being used in a historical context: Until 1945, Henry G. Hotz was dean of what was then called the College of Education.

The college has six academic departments, nine undergraduate programs, 33 graduate programs and four graduate certificate programs.

College of Engineering

When used in a transposed way, retain capitalization: Engineering College. Do not reduce the name to an abbreviation.

The college has eight departments, nine undergraduate programs and 14 graduate programs and contributes to six interdisciplinary graduate programs.

collide, collision

Two objects must both be in motion before they can collide. An automobile cannot collide with a utility pole, for instance. Use strike or hit.


The word describes the informal use of language. Many colloquialisms are characteristic of informal writing and conversation and should be used advisedly: bum, phone. Others, such as ain't, are substandard and shouldn't be used.

Refer also to the dialect, jargon and vernacular entries.


The most frequent use of a colon is at the end of a sentence to introduce lists, tabulations, texts, etc. Capitalize the first word after a colon if it is a proper noun or the start of a complete sentence: She promised the class this: The lectures are necessary to understand the coursework. But lowercase otherwise: There are three considerations: time, money and desire.

The Associated Press recommends using a colon to introduce a quote which is more than two sentences long and to end all paragraphs that introduce a paragraph of quoted material.

Colons are also used to separate hours, minutes and seconds in time: He ran the mile in 3:56:07; and in biblical and legal citations to separate chapters and verse or section: Psalm 5:6, Arkansas Code 3:45-63.

combined major

The university offers a few combined majors, in which classwork is offered through two departments for one degree. Some combined majors include:

  • anthropology/sociology
  • English/journalism
  • journalism/political science
Refer also to the entries on additional majors, double majors, majors and second majors.


The Associated Press recommends against using a serial comma in a simple series, such as red, white and blue. If a series includes a more complicated structure, the serial comma should be used to avoid ambiguity.

Use a comma before the concluding conjunction in a series if an integral element of the series requires a conjunction: She read Oliver Twist, Sense and Sensibility, and Anna Karenina.

Use a comma before the concluding conjunction in a series of complex phrases: The university's mission includes the teaching of young minds, exploration of new fields of research, and outreach to communities in need of help.

Use a comma between adjectives of equal rank. If the comma could be replaced by the word and without changing the sense, the adjectives are equal: a thoughtful, precise manor; a dark, dangerous street. Use no comma if the last adjective before a noun outranks its predecessors: a cheap fur coat; the new, blue spring bonnet.

Use commas to set off nonessential clauses and phrases: The first summer session, which starts Thursday, will have a record number of students.

No commas around essential clauses or phrases: The summer session that most students attend is in June.

Use a comma to separate an introductory clause or phrase from the main clause: When he enrolled at the university, the process was simple.

Use a comma before a conjunction that joins two clauses that could each stand alone: He went to class Monday, and the teacher gave a quiz. No comma is necessary if the subject is not repeated in the second clause: He went to class Monday and took a quiz.

Use a comma to introduce a complete one-sentence quotation within a paragraph: He said, "The time is here." Use a colon for multisentence or multiparagraph quotations. Also use a comma when attribution comes after the quote: "The time is here," he said. Do not use a comma at the beginning of a partial or indirect quote: He said that the time "is here."

Use commas to set off an age: Mike Smith, 19, enrolled.

Commas can be used to set off a hometown: Mike Smith, Little Rock, enrolled. But: Mike Smith of Little Rock enrolled.

Commas set off names of states or nations used with city names: Fayetteville, Arkansas, has 60,000 residents; The international student is from Edinburgh, Scotland.

Use a comma with yes or no: Yes, I will make an A.

Use a comma in figures greater than 999 except for street addresses, broadcast frequencies, serial numbers and years: 18,921 students; 1,632 answers; the year 2007.

Do not use a comma to set off Sr., Jr., III, Co., Corp. or Inc. For consistency, do not use them in names of buildings that have been named for companies or people either: J.B. Hunt Transport Services Inc. Center for Academic Excellence.


Capitalize when referring to a specific commencement: The 2007 Commencement will begin at 2 p.m. Saturday. Capitalize the season when referring to a specific commencements: the Fall Commencement, the Spring 2015 Commencement. Lowercase when writing generally about commencements.

Writers should note that the university offers two general commencements annually, and each college and school also offers a smaller commencement ceremony in connection with the Spring Commencement. Traditionally, the School of Law conducts its spring commencement a week after the other commencements.


Capitalize when part of the proper name of a committee: Campaign for the Twenty-First Century Steering Committee. Lowercase otherwise.


Capitalize when part of the proper name of a commission: the 2010 Commission. Lowercase otherwise.

Community and Family Institute

The institute is a joint effort between the university and the Harvey and Bernice Jones Center for Families in Springdale to provide multidisciplinary research on issues facing families and communities. It is based in the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences and was established in 2004.

company, companies

Generally, follow the spelling and capitalization preferred by the company: 3M Corp., Tyson Foods Inc., Wal-Mart Stores Inc., eBay.

Use Co. or Cos. when a business uses the word at the end of its proper name: Ford Motor Co., Southwestern Electric Power Co.

For a theatrical company, spell out: the Martha Graham Dance Company.

complement, compliment

Complement is associated with two or more items that are well matched or complete a whole. Compliment means to praise or give polite flattery.

compose, comprise, constitute

Compose means to create or put together. It commonly is used in both the active and passive voices: She composed a song. The United States is composed of 50 states.

Comprise means to contain, to include all or embrace. It is best used only in the active voice, followed by a direct object: The College of Engineering comprises eight departments. The track team comprises four sprinters, three middle-distance runners and two long jumpers.

Constitute, when used to mean to form or to make up, may be the best word if neither compose nor comprise seems to fit: Nine players constitute a baseball team. Four men and eight women constitute the jury.

composition titles

This stylebook differs from the Associated Press style, which does not use italics.

Apply the following guidelines:

  • Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of four or more letters.
  • Capitalize an article - a, an, the - or a word of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title.
  • Italicize the titles of books, journals, magazines, movies, newspapers, operas, plays, long poems, collections of poetry, television series and works of art
  • Use quote marks around the titles of articles or stories from within larger compilations; television episodes (either an individual show or an episodic title from a television series); shorter musical compositions or pieces from within a larger work; lectures; and shorter poems.
  • The Chicago Manual of Style recommends using a consistent style if several longer and shorter works are listed together. Make them all italic.
  • Do not italicize or put in quotes the Bible and books that are primarily works of reference, including almanacs, directories, dictionaries, encyclopedias, gazetteers, handbooks and similar publications. Do not italicize software titles such as WordPerfect or Windows.
  • Translate a foreign title into English unless a work is known to the American public by its foreign name.

EXAMPLES: The University of Arkansas Alma Mater, Charles Portis' Norwood, Jim Whitehead's Joiner, ABC's Grey's Anatomy, Ellen Gilchrist's In the Land of Dreamy Dreams, Frost's poem "The Road Not Taken," Rousseau's novel War (rather than La Guerre).

compound modifiers

Refer to the hyphen entry.


At the university, a concentration is one of two or more course plans available for completing the requirements of a major academic program, but allowing the student to concentrate on a specialty within the major. Lowercase concentrations: A food technology concentration is offered.

Refer also to the major and track entries.

Congress, congressional

Capitalize U.S. Congress and Congress when referring collectively to the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Lowercase congressional unless its part of a proper name such as Congressional Quarterly.

congressional districts

Use figures and capitalize district when joined with a figure: The 3rd Congressional District of Arkansas covers northwest Arkansas, the 3rd District.

congressman, congresswoman

Use only in reference to members of the U.S. House of Representatives. Capitalize when preceding a person's name.

Refer also to the representative, Rep. entry.

connote, denote

Connote means to suggest or imply something beyond the explicit meaning: To some people, the word marriage connotes too much restriction. The word denote means to be explicit about the meaning: The word demolish denotes destruction.


Means to have general agreement.


Capitalize references to the U.S. Constitution with or without U.S. as a modifier. Also capitalize references to the Arkansas Constitution, but lowercase the word constitution otherwise.

continual, continuous

Continual means a steady repetition, over and over again: The donation has been a continual source of funds for new endowed scholarships. Continuous means uninterrupted or unbroken: She took emerita status after 25 years of continuous service.


Contractions reflect informal speech and writing. Webster's New World Dictionary includes many entries for contractions: aren't for are not, for example. Avoid excessive use of contractions, although they are acceptable in informal contexts, especially where they reflect the way a phrase commonly appears in speech or writing.


When used with a company name, abbreviate: Verizon Corp.

council, counsel

A council is a convening body. A counsel is someone who advises.


When used in the sense of two people, the word takes plural verbs and pronouns: The couple were married Saturday and left on their honeymoon. When used as a single unit, use a singular verb: Each couple is donating a prize for the drawing.

course titles and numbers

Capitalize course titles and use Roman numerals when appropriate: Applied Leadership or World Literature II. Lowercase general study subjects: While studying math, he took the Statistics I and II courses.

To further identify courses, the University of Arkansas uses an alpha-numeric code consisting of four letters designating the general subject of study and four numbers, the first of which indicates level and the last of which usually designates the number of hours of credit: HIST 1013 is a freshman-level history course worth three hours of credit, AGEC 3162 is a junior-level agricultural economics course worth two hours of credit. For courses with variable hours of credit, the letter V is substituted for the last number: COMM 490V is a senior-level communications internship course with variable hours. Other course suffixes include:

  • D - drill or discussion
  • E - honors drill or discussion
  • H - honors course
  • L - laboratory
  • M - honors laboratory
Refer also to the class, course, section entry.


One word.

Refer also to entries on electives and requisites.

courtesy titles

Courtesy titles are unnecessary in most uses. Use courtesy titles such as Miss, Mr., Mrs. and Ms. only in direct quotations or one of the following situations:

  • When it is helps to distinguish between two people who have the same last name. Use the courtesy titles equally for men and women, and use the woman's preferred courtesy title if known.
  • When a man or woman specifically requests the use of a courtesy title.

The Associated Press recommends using the title Dr. for people who hold doctoral degrees in the medical professions because readers associate that title with a medical doctor. Its use for holders of other academic doctorates is not recommended but may be used when a more formal document calls for it. Writers need to make clear the individual's specialty when using Dr. in an academic sense. Do not use Dr. on second reference./p>

If using a degree abbreviation after the name, do not precede a name with a redundant title such as Dr.:

Wrong: Dr. Bill Jones, Ph.D., is president of Carnegie Mellon or Dr. Jan Smith, M.D. Use one abbreviation or the other but not both.

Do not use Dr. before the name of someone who holds an honorary doctorate. Reference to an honorary degree must specify the degree is honorary.

For religious titles such as the Rev., consult the Associated Press Stylebook. The courtesy title is often tied to the denomination of the person being identified.

Refer also to entries for academic titles and titles.


The Associated Press has a topical guide for use of words and phrases related to current pandemic.

Cralley-Warren Research Laboratory

The research laboratory is one of the facilities at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center. Its building code is CWRL.

credit, hours

At the University of Arkansas, credit, hours and credit hours are often used synonymously to refer to the number of hours that a course meets per week and the number of total hours a student must pass to qualify for an academic degree. For some courses, the number of hours that the class meets does not equal the credit hours.

Use a figure when referring to credit hours: The course earns 3 hours of credit. However, follow the normal rules regarding numbers when talking generally about hours in a day: The class met for two hours. She studies 12 hours each week.

Refer also to the audit entry.

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Field Laboratory

The field laboratory is one of the facilities at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center. Its building code is CSFL.

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Shop

The shop is one of the facilities at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center. Its building code is CSSP.


curriculum, curricula (pl.), curricular (adj.)

A curriculum is a program of courses comprising the requirements for a degree in a particular field of study. Use the Latin plural.


Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

On second reference, Bumpers College is preferable. It was named for Dale Bumpers, a former state governor and U.S. senator, by the University of Arkansas Board of Trustees in 1995 in honor of his contributions to Arkansas. Lowercase college when it stands alone.

The college includes the School of Human Environmental Sciences and 10 academic departments. It offers 13 undergraduate degree programs, 23 graduate programs and five interdisciplinary graduate programs.

Daniel E. Ferritor Hall

Built in 2000, the hall is named for Daniel E. Ferritor, a former professor and chancellor of the university. Ferritor Hall is sufficient on second reference. Its building code is FERR.


Use dashes to punctuate an abrupt change in thought or an emphatic pause. Also use a dash to set off a series of words that would normally be set off by commas but which contains commas itself: She listed the course goals — awareness, experience, explanation and resolution — to be pursued.

Also use a dash to separate the dateline of a media release and the beginning of the story: Fayetteville, Ark. — The university announced today.

Most typefaces provide two types of dashes, an en dash and an em dash. Traditionally, the en dash is usually the width of a capital N in the typeface used, and the em dash is the width of an M. Either is permissible, but be consistent within a release.

For typographical reasons, put a space on both sides of a dash. If a word-processing program doesn't allow a dash, use two hyphens together. Do not use a single hyphen in place of a dash.

See also hyphen.


Use plural noun-verb construction in most instances: The data are being cross-checked. The singular is datum.


When putting a dateline on a news release, use the city and state designation based on where the information was gathered for the story. Most of the university's media releases will be datelined FAYETTEVILLE, Ark. If the board of trustees met in Little Rock or a news conference was given at Garvan Woodland Gardens near Hot Springs, a dateline of LITTLE ROCK, Ark., or HOT SPRINGS, Ark., would be more appropriate.

Separate a dateline from the story with a space, dash and another space.

The Associated Press lists numerous American and international cities that are so well known that a state or country designation is unneeded when they are used. Consult the AP Stylebook for those instances.

When a state name is included in the dateline, no state designator is needed for other cities from the same state when they are mentioned in the article unless there could be confusion between two similarly named cities.

See also cities and state names.


Use both the day and date in media releases: The event will be Thursday and Friday, April 6-7. This is a variation from the Associated Press guide, which recommends using either one or the other, but not both. Use cardinal numbers — Dec. 1, Sept. 2, March 14 — rather than ordinal numbers — Dec. 1st, Sept. 2nd, March 14th — for dates.

Use a hyphen for continuing or inclusive dates: The 2006-07 academic year or The meeting is Jan. 8-12. Do not use a hyphen as a substitute for to or and in constructions using from or between: She taught from 1985 to 2006. The dinner happened between 6 and 7 p.m.

See also time element.

days of the week

Capitalize and do not abbreviate except for tabular material.


One word.


One word.

David and Barbara Pryor Center for Arkansas Oral and Visual History

The center documents the history of Arkansas through collection of oral interviews and archival video and audio recordings. It is named for university alumni who provided initial funding for the center in 1999. On second reference, the Pryor Center is sufficient.

Davis Hall

Davis Hall was named for Mary Anne Davis, a long-time faculty member and the second dean of women. It was built as a residence hall for female students in 1942 but converted the next year into military use for soldiers enrolled in the Army Specialized Training Corps. After World War II, it was again a women's residence hall. From the 1960s to the 1990s, it was used as a sorority house by Alpha Chi Omega, Kappa Alpha Theta, and Phi Mu, and on a couple of brief occasions as a men's residence hall. The School of Law used the building from the mid-1990s to 2008 for several programs, including the Legal Clinic, offices of the Arkansas Law Review and the agricultural law program.

The building was renovated into an office building in 2010 and houses the Office of University Relations, which moved into the facility in 2011. Its building code is DAVH.

Dead Day

A full day set aside for study after the end of semester classes and before the beginning of final exams.


Capitalize when it is used before someone's name, and lowercase otherwise: Dean Worrell, Dean Ashok Saxena, the dean said.

dean's list

Always lowercase.


Use Arabic numerals for decades of history. Use an apostrophe to indicate numerals that have been left out, and show a plural by adding the letter s: the 1870s, the '20s, the Roaring '20s, the mid-1960s.

See also the historical periods and events entry.


A prefix meaning one-tenth.


Use a period and numerals to show decimal amounts. Don't exceed two decimal places for narrative material unless there are special circumstances, such as a story that shows how minutely a nanomeasurement is being made. For amounts less than 1, use a zero before the decimal point: 0.03 percent.

See also the fractions entry.


See the academic degrees entry.

degrees with distinction

High-achieving graduates may be honored with one of three levels of distinction:

  • cum laude — "with praise"
  • magna cum laude — "with great praise"
  • summa cum laude — "with highest praise"

Because they are Latin, treat them as foreign phrases and italicize them.

See also academic degrees and honorary degrees.

dek- (before a vowel), deka-

A prefix showing ten units of measure. A dekameter is 10 meters.

Delta Delta Delta Clock

This clock, which stands near the east entrance of the Arkansas Union, was donated by the Delta Delta Delta Sorority in 1988 to celebrate the centennial of its national founding.

demolish, destroy

Both words mean to remove completely, so a building cannot be partially demolished. Use damaged. It is also redundant to say that a building was totally destroyed.


In an exception to Associated Press style, capitalize proper names of academic departments: the Department of English, the Department of Physics or the Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering. Treat nonacademic departments on campus similarly: the Department of Facilities Management or the Department of Intercollegiate Athletics.

Government agencies, such as the Arkansas Department of Higher Education or the U.S. Department of Agriculture, are also capitalized.

See also the academic departments, the centers and the office entries.

Department of Facilities Management

As with other departments on campus, capitalize its proper name. This department oversees physical planning, facility upkeep, landscape upkeep and custodial services across campus.

Department of Special Collections

This department of the University of Arkansas Libraries was created in 1967 to encourage research and writing about the history and culture of Arkansas. It maintains manuscript collections and archives, including documents related to the university's own history.

dependent majors

See the second majors entry.


See dimensions.


Hyphenate: chairman-designate, Dean-designate William Smith.


The form of language peculiar to a region or group, usually in matters of syntax or pronunciation. Avoid using dialect, even in quoted matter, unless it is clearly pertinent to a story. When there is a compelling reason, use phonetic spelling where necessary and apostrophes to show missing letters and sounds: You'uns git nary a thang to et.

See also the jargon, colloquialisms and vernacular entries.

Diane D. Blair Center of Southern Politics and Society

The center is based in the department of political science in the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences, and it fosters political scholarship and study of Southern politics. On second reference, Blair Center is sufficient.

Dickson Street Annex

Built as housing in 1975, the Dickson Street Annex was initially housing and later home to several offices, including KUAF Radio. It was torn down in 2010 for parking.


For spelling of words or phrases not shown in this guide, use Webster's New World Collegiate Dictionary, Fourth Edition. Use the first spelling unless this guide or the Associated Press Stylebook provides a specific exception.

Dills Indoor Tennis Center

Built in 1982 and expanded in 2002, the center has six tennis courts, offices and seating for 1,500 people. It was named in honor of Robert "Bob" and Lucille Dills, longtime supporters of the Razorback program. Its building code is TTRC.


Use numerals and spell out inches, feet, yards, meters, etc., to indicate depth, heighth, length and width. Hyphenate adjectival forms before nouns: The 5-foot-6-inch man; but, He is 5 feet 6 inches tall. The entry is 5 feet by 7 feet. The 5-foot-by-7-foot rug. Use an apostrophe and quote marks for feet and inches, respectively, in tabular or technical material: 5'6."

directions and regions

In general, lowercase directional cues when they indicate points of the compass: north, south, southwesterly. Capitalize directional words when they designate regions: They live on the West Coast. He teaches politics of the South. The Northeast depends on the Midwest for food. He has a Northern accent.

Lowercase when used with a nation unless part of the proper name: western Canada, Northern Ireland.

Capitalize compass points when part of a proper state name: West Virginia, North Dakota; lowercase compass points otherwise: northwest Arkansas, west Texas.

Capitalize when denoting a widely known section of a state or city: Southern California, Lower East Side of New York.


Capitalize when used as a title before a person's name. Lowercase otherwise.


Generally no hyphen: dismember, dissuade.

disabled, handicapped, impaired

In general, do not describe an individual as disabled unless a person's physical or mental ability is pertinent to a story. If such a description is used, make clear what the disability is and how much the person's physical or mental performance is affected. Avoid euphemisms such as mentally challenged or descriptions that connote pity, such as afflicted with or suffering from multiple sclerosis. Rather, use has multiple sclerosis.

Some related terms:

  • cripple — Often considered offensive when used to describe someone who has a physical disability.
  • disabled — A general term used for a physical or cognitive condition that substantially limits one or more of the major daily life activities.
  • handicap — It should be avoided in describing a disability.
  • blind — Someone with a complete loss of sight. For others, use visually impaired or person with low vision.
  • deaf — Someone with a total hearing loss. For others, use partial hearing loss. Avoid use of deaf-mute or deaf and dumb.
  • mute — Someone who physically cannot speak. For others with speaking difficulties, use speech impaired.
  • wheelchair user — People use wheelchairs for independent mobility. Do not use confined to a wheelchair or wheelchair-bound. If reference to a wheelchair is needed, explain why.
See also the Center for Educational Access and the Speech and Hearing Clinic entries.

discreet, discrete

Discreet means judicious, prudent or circumspect. Discrete means detached, separate or distinct.


This is an annual journal of undergraduate research published by the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences. It should be italicized.

Discovery Hall

Built in 1968, this building was originally known as the Science Hall. It includes labs and classrooms for science research. Its building code is DISC.


Generally do not capitalize the names of diseases except for portions derived from a proper name: arthritis, avian flu, Parkinson's disease.


Always use figures: She ran 5 miles.

distance education

The term refers to coursework offered to students who are not in the same physical location as the teacher. The coursework might be offered in any of several ways, including closed circuit television, satellite television, streaming video, the interntet or email.

See also the Global Campus.

distinguished professor

To avoid confusion, treat this professorial rank like an endowed title: Mary Smith, who holds the rank of Distinguished Professor, or Mary Smith, a Distinguished Professor of psychology.

See the professor entry.


Do not abbreviate. Use a figure and capitalize district when forming a proper name: the 3rd Congressional District, the 8th District Court of Appeals.

District of Columbia

In usage, treat as though it were a state. Abbreviate as D.C. when used with the city Washington and set off by commas: the Washington, D.C., gallery. On second reference, the District is allowed.

See the states entry.


When the full name of one of the university's major divisions is used, capitalize it: the Division of University Advancement. The University of Arkansas has four major divisions:

  • Division of Academic Affairs
  • Division of Finance and Administration
  • Division of Student Affairs
  • Division of University Advancement

The Division of Student Affairs became part of the Division of Academic Affairs in 2009, although its name continues to be the same.

See also the entry for the Division of Agriculture, which is part of the University of Arkansas System.

Division of Agriculture

The Division of Agriculture is a statewide entity of the University of Arkansas System and includes the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.

It has offices on five of the University of Arkansas System campuses as well as five research and extension stations and eight branch experiment stations. The extension service includes offices in all 75 counties of Arkansas. The division is headed by the vice president for agriculture with offices at the University of Arkansas System headquarters in Little Rock and on the Fayetteville campus.

The division has a collaborative association with the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences. Most faculty members have dual appointments, with their research or extension responsibilities as division appointees and teaching responsibilities as Bumpers College faculty. 

When referring to the Division of Agriculture on first reference, use the following construction to help avoid confusion between it and the Bumpers College: the University of Arkansas System's statewide Division of Agriculture.

See also the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences and the University of Arkansas System.

doctor, doctoral (adj.), doctorate (n.)

Use the abbreviated title Dr. in first reference as a formal title before the name of a medical doctor who holds a doctor of dental surgery, doctor of medicine, doctor of osteopathy or doctor of podiatric medicine: Dr. Jonas Salk.

However, because the public most often identifies Dr. with physicians, preferably do not use Dr. for a purely academic title. When doing so, show that the individual's expertise is in an academic field rather than a medical field. Occasionally, it also is necessary to identify further an individual as a medical doctor in cases in which both medical and academic doctors are part of a story.

Do not use Dr. before the names of people who hold honorary doctorates. Do not use Dr. on second reference.

When used to describe the degree of doctor, capitalize when it is part of the proper name of a degree: She earned a Doctor of Philosophy; he holds a Doctor of Education; she is pursuing a Juris Doctor. Lowercase otherwise: He holds a doctor's degree; she is pursuing a doctorate.

Use doctoral as the modifier: Her doctoral studies are going well. Do not use it as a replacement for the noun doctorate. WRONG: He holds a doctoral.

See also academic degrees, academic titles and courtesy titles.


Use figures and the $ sign in all except casual references or amounts without a figure: The textbook cost $21. Dollars are flowing into the campaign.

For specified amounts, the word takes a singular verb: He said $500,000 is enough to create an endowed scholarsip.

For amounts above $1 million or $1 billion, use numerals out to two decimal points: The campaign raised $1.05 billion. The building cost $4.36 million.

For amounts less that $1 million, use the following forms: $5, $27, $111, $1,024, $100,000.

See also cents.

Donald W. Reynolds Center for Enterprise Development

Built in 1999, the center is part of the Sam M. Walton College of Business. It houses the Arkansas Business Hall of Fame and a 300-seat auditorium. It is named for the late Donald W. Reynolds, an Arkansas publisher who owned newspapers across the nation. Its building code is RCED.

Donald W. Reynolds Razorback Stadium

Built in 1938 and originally called Bailey Stadium, this stadium is home to University of Arkansas men's football games. It has undergone three major expansions, most recently in 2003. It seats 80,000 people. It is named for the late Donald W. Reynolds, an Arkansas publisher who owned newspapers across the nation.

On second reference, Reynolds Razorback Stadium is preferable but Razorback Stadium is also acceptable. Its building code is RAZS.

Donna Axum Fitness Center

This training room is in the Health, Physical Education and Recreation Building and is named for Donna Axum Whitworth, a university benefactor and alumna who while a senior in 1964 was the first Arkansan to be selected Miss America.

Don Tyson Center for Agricultural Sciences

The Don Tyson Center for Agricultural Sciences opened in 2017 at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center. It is named for the late Don Tyson, a university student and benefactor who was president of Tyson Foods. Writers should recognize that other facilities on campus include the Tyson name and avoid shortening the name of the facility on second reference if it would cause confusion. The center is managed by the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture as a research lab. Its building code is DTAS.

dorm, dormitory

Use residence hall.

Dorothy E. King Equine Pavilion

Built in 2000, the equine pavilion is part of the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center and is named for a benefactor. The pavilion includes a horse barn and facilities for managing a herd used for equine courses. Its building code is DKEC.

double degrees

A program of study that includes one set of university requirements and two sets of college or school and primary discipline-specific requirements and leads to two different bachelor's degrees with two different majors.

See also the entries on additional majors, combined majors, double majors, majors and second majors.

double majors

Students may, with the approval of an academic adviser, pursue more than one major at the same time. To receive a degree, the student must complete all discipline-specific requirements for each major.

See also the entries on additional majors, combined majors, double degrees, majors and second majors.


In general, the prefix will have no hyphen: downgrade, downtown.


Follow Webster's New World spelling for words with -down as an affix. Some examples include: breakdown, countdown, sit-down.


See doctor.


See addresses.

Droke Observatory

The Droke Observatory was built in 1978 about 12 miles southeast of Fayetteville on land donated by the Droke family in memory of Dean George Wesley Droke. The observatory included a 16-inch reflecting telescope funded by the National Science Foundation. The telescope was removed in 2009 for display at the university's Center for Space and Planetary Sciences. Its building code is DROK.


The process of removing one's registration from a course is referred to as dropping a class.

drop out (v.), dropout (n.)

Examples: Do not drop out of school. The dropout is unemployed.

dual heritage

Do not use a hyphen to join terms such as African American, Asian American, Latinx American, Italian American, Scottish American or similar combinations from other countries such as Swiss European or Turkish German. Use these only when relevant to a story. As with other identifiers, follow a person’s preference.

Refer also to the ethnicity and race entry.

Duncan Avenue Apartments

Duncan Avenue Apartments opened in the 2008-09 school year. They are leased to students who have completed at least 45 hours of coursework. They include 54 four-bedroom apartments (196 beds), a 3,400-square-foot community center, pavilion and walking trail. The apartments are grouped in five joined buildings, designated DUNA, DUNB, DUNC, DUND and DUNE from north to south.

dyeing, dying

Dyeing refers to changing colors. Dying refers to death.



A shortened form of electronic, use it with other words, usually by joining it with a hyphen: e-book, e-conference, e-newsletter, e-reader. Exceptions are email and proper names that do not use the hyphen.


Use a singular verb with it: Each of them is going.

each other, one another

Two people look at each other. More than two people look at one another. When the number is indefinite, either phrase works equally well: We help each other. We help one another.


Lowercase except when used as the proper name of the planet: He has no earthly idea. The research examines Venus, Earth and Jupiter. The rocket fell back to Earth. The experiment examines earth found at seven sites.

See also planets and heavenly bodies.


An earthquake magnitude is a measure of ground motion recorded on seismographs. The Richter scale, named for Charles F. Richter, is no longer widely used. Various other scales are used today, but they only vary slightly from one another. The name of the scale, therefore, is unneeded unless magnitudes from two different scales are being compared. In general, though, every increase of 1 on the scale, from 5.6 to 6.6 for example, means the quake's magnitude is 10 times greater.

A quake of magnitude:

  • 2.5 to 3 is the smallest generally felt by people.
  • 4 can cause moderate damage.
  • 5 can cause considerable damage.
  • 6 can cause severe damage.
  • 7 is capable of widespread and heavy damage.
  • 8 is capable of tremendous damage.

A temblor (not tremblor) is a synonym for earthquake. A tremor is a synonym for a slight earthquake. The epicenter of an earthquake is the point on the Earth's surface directly above the underground center, or focus, of an earthquake.

Education Renewal Zone

This partnership among the university, the Northwest Arkansas Education Service Cooperative and public schools in a three-county area is operated by the College of Education and Health Professions, according to legislative guidelines set to improve student and school performance.


See the affect, effect entry.


Use it to mean one or the other but not both:

  • RIGHT: She said to attend either class.
  • WRONG: There were charts on either side of the classroom.
  • RIGHT: There were charts on both sides of the classroom. There were charts on each side of the classroom.

either or, neither nor

The nouns that follow these words do not constitute a compound subject. They are alternative subjects and require a verb that agrees with the subject nearest to the verb: Neither they nor he is going. Either he or they are going.

E.J. Ball Courtroom

This courtroom is part of the Leflar Law Center. It is named for E.J. Ball, an alumnus and former law professor, and it seats 203 people.

Eleanor Mann School of Nursing

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing is part of the College of Education and Health Professions. It is named for its benefactor. The Mann School of Nursing is sufficient on second reference.

When referring to a nurse's credentials, spell out the level of licensing that the nurse has achieved: Bob Jones, a registered nurse, or Mary Smith, a licensed practical nurse.

See also the nurse entry.


Use with hyphen and lowercase: President-elect Kennedy.


An elective course may involve a greater or lesser degree of student choice. A general elective course could be one that is needed to complete the number of hours required for the degree when no other requirements remain to be met. A free elective course may be one that is not needed to complete either course requirements or hour requirements.

Ella's Restaurant

The name of the restaurant at the Inn at Carnall Hall. It is named for Ella Howison Carnall, an alumna and former professor.


Treat an ellipsis, the three dots that connote omission of words, as though it were a single three-letter word. Put a space before and after it but no spaces between the dots: He said he would go, … and soon he did. If material in a quote has been eliminated at the end of one sentence or the beginning of another, use a period after the last word of the initial sentence and then an ellipsis between it and the next sentence: She likes the class. ... Her mentor is teaching it.

Ellipses are usually unneeded at the beginning or end of quoted material. Omission of what came before or after is implied by the quote marks. An ellipsis might be desirable at the end of a quote to indicate when the speaker herself has trailed off without finishing a sentence.


Email is short for electronic mail. Most other combinations using "e" as a prefix are hyphenated: e-book, e-newsletter.

emeritus, emerita, emeriti, emeritae

Generally, emeritus status is accorded faculty who have served the university for an extended period and have retired. Writers should be aware that some retired faculty members continue to teach classes or perform research. The university also extends emeritus status to staff members with long terms of service. When used with a title, the Associated Press recommends placing emeritus immediately after the title. Use it lowercase even if the formal title of a person is capitalized: professor emeritus Joe Smith; Dean emerita Mary Jones; Chancellor emeritus John White; or Joe Smith, professor emeritus of history.

Emeritus faculty and staff are listed in the university's Campus Directory.

emigrate, immigrate

One who leaves a country emigrates. One who comes to a country immigrates. The noun forms are emigrant and immigrant.

Engineering College

See College of Engineering.

Engineering Experiment Station

Established in 1920, the station coordinates engineering research among the eight departments in the College of Engineering.

Engineering Research Center

The center provides facilities and support services for research activities in the College of Engineering, providing space for the following:

  • Engineering Experiment Station
  • Genesis Technology Incubator
  • Southwest Regional Calibration Center
  • High Density Electronics Center
  • Arkansas Center for Technology Transfer
  • Industrial Training Laboratory
  • Center for Interactive Technology
  • Systems Technology Laboratory
  • Highway Construction Materials Laboratory
  • Hydrology Laboratory
  • Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Laboratory

The center is located on 32 acres of land about two miles south of the main campus.

Enhanced Learning Center

The center supports academic and intellectual achievements of students. It is based in Gregson Hall.

enroll, enrolled, enrolling

Two l's in all uses.


See the assure, ensure, insure entry.

entitled, titled

Entitled means the right to do or have something; titled refers to the name of a book or composition.

  • RIGHT: He is entitled to his opinion.
  • RIGHT: The book is titled Wuthering Heights.

Entomology Toxic Medical Laboratory

The laboratory is one of the facilities at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center. On second reference, Entomology Lab is sufficient. Its building code is ETML.

Epley Center for Health Professions

Built in 1965 and named the Fount Richardson Health Center originally, the building was completely renovated in 2012 and is now home to the Eleanor Mann School of Nursing. It is named in honor of two donors, Lewis and Donna Epley, and it is located on Razorback Road just south of Reid Hall. Its building code is ECHP.


See the historical periods and events entry.

equal, equitable

Equal is an adjective without comparative forms. Something can't be equaler or equalest, or more equal or most equal. So, often, when someone speaks of a more equal distribution of wealth or representation in government or foundation for growth, what they really mean is more equitable. Use the latter unless quoting directly.

equivalence, equivalents

Equivalence is the state of being equivalent; equivalents are two things that are equal.


See the historical periods and events entry.

essential clauses, nonessential clauses

These terms are used in this guide instead of "restrictive clause" and "nonrestrictive clause" to convey the distinction between the two clauses in a more easily remembered manner.

Both types of clauses provide additional information about a word or phrase in the sentence. The difference between them is that the essential clause cannot be eliminated without changing the meaning of the sentence. The nonessential clause can be eliminated without significantly changing the meaning.

Set off a nonessential clause with commas.

For introducing an essential clause, preference is to use that, who or whom. For example: Little Rock is the city that is home to the Capitol; Give the assignment to the person who is at the front of the room; Mike Jones greeted the woman whom was appointed chair.

For nonessential clauses, which is always used to introduce an inanimate object or an animal without a name. Use who or whom to introduce a nonessential clause that refers to a person or named animal.

See also the that, which and who, whom entries.

ethnicity and race

Writers should identify a person's ethnicity or race only when pertinent to the story. Use ethnic identifiers such as Asian American, European American, Latin American, Native American or African American in equal manner.

The Associated Press prefers the use of Black and white when referring to race. Writers should recognize that race is a social and cultural construct rather than a biological one.

Writers should be as specific as possible when writing about race and ethnicity. Referring to a student who is from Colombia as a Colombian, rather than the more generic Hispanic or Latina gives a reader more information and helps avoid stereotypes.

Refer also to the African American; American Indian, Native American; Asian American; Black; European American; Hispanic; Latino, Latina, Latinx; nationalities and races; and people of color, racial minorities entries.

European American

Preferred usage for someone who has European and American heritage or citizenship. Use without a hyphen, whether as a modifier or not. The Associated Press prefers the use of white to describe the race of someone of European descent. As with other ethnicities, be specific when possible and follow a person’s preference: She was born in Germany and became a naturalized citizen.

Refer also to the ethnicity and race entry.


Capitalize if using it after the name of a holiday: New Year's Eve.


Capitalize the main words of named events as well as any conjunctions or prepositions that have more than four letters.

every day (adv.), everyday (adj.)

Examples: She goes to class every day. He wears everyday clothes.

every one, everyone

Use two words when individual items are referenced: Every one of the credits was needed for graduation. Use one word to mean all people: Everyone with enough credits will graduate.


Use no hyphen for words in which ex- is used to mean out of: excommunicate, expropriate. Use a hyphen when ex- is used to mean former: ex-president, ex-convict.


Two g's.


See the tests entry.


See the accept, except entry.

exclamation point

Use the mark to express a high degree of surprise, incredulity or other strong emotion. Avoid overuse. A well written sentence can express surprise or strong emotion without an exclamation point.

expel, expelled, expelling

Preferred spelling.


Generally, do not use a hyphen when the prefix extra- means outside of: extralegal, extraterrestrial. Do use a hyphen when extra- is used to make a compound modifier: extra-base hits, extra-large classroom.


facilities management

See the Department of Facilities Management entry.

fact-finding (adj.)

Example: A fact-finding mission.


The word faculty is a collective noun and can be treated as plural or singular depending on the context. When writing about the faculty as a whole, faculty should take a singular verb: The faculty is in favor of the new schedule. When writing about individuals, use faculty members to avoid noun-verb difficulties and a plural verb regardless: Five faculty members are teaching abroad; Five faculty are teaching abroad.

See also Campus Faculty and Faculty Senate.

Faculty Senate

Faculty Senate is the representative body of the University of Arkansas faculty. It comprises six executive officers — a chair, vice chair, secretary, parliamentarian, a chair-elect and a vice chair-elect — and 45 voting senators, 32 of whom represent the colleges and schools, and 13 of whom are elected at-large. They serve two-year terms. It also includes more than a dozen non-voting members who serve by virtue of the administrative positions they hold on campus.

See also Campus Council, Campus Faculty and faculty.


The Fahrenheit scale is named after Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, a German physicist who designed it. It is the temperature scale most commonly used in the United States. In it, the freezing point of water is 32 degrees and the boiling point is 212 degrees.

To convert to Celsius, subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit figure, multiply by 5 and divide by 9 (Example: 77 degrees Fahrenheit minus 32 equals 45, times 5 equals 225, divided by 9 equals 25 degrees Celsius.)

In cases that require mention of the scale, use 86 degrees Fahrenheit or 86 F if degrees and Fahrenheit are clear from the context.

See Celsius and Kelvin.


See the seasons entry.

false titles

Avoid using a false title, often derived from an occupational title or other label: First in his class John Smith. Coordinator of Consumer Sales and Point-of-Purchase Displays Ann Jones. Instead, use the occupation or label in an appositive form or as separate clause: John Smith, who was first in his class. Ann Jones, the coordinator of consumer sales and point-of-purchase displays.

See also the titles entry.

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

This federal act affords students certain privacy rights with respect to their educational records. On second reference, FERPA is allowable.

family names

Capitalize words denoting family relationships only when they precede the name of a person or when they stand unmodified as a substitute for a person's name: I wrote Grandfather Smith. I wrote Mother a letter. I wrote my mother a letter.

farther, further

Farther refers to physical distance: He walked farther. Further refers to an extension of time or degree: She will conduct further research.


Acceptable in all references as a short version of facsimile or a facsimile machine.

Fay Jones School of Architecture and Design

Lowercase school when it stands alone. Fay Jones School is accepted on second reference. The school is based in Vol Walker Hall.

The school includes a Department of Architecture, a Department of Landscape Architecture and a Department of Interior Design, and it offers five undergraduate degree programs and one interdisciplinary master's degree in Design Studies.


The University of Arkansas offers several scholar programs that provide funding for advanced students. Among them:

  • Bodenhammer Fellowship
  • Boyer Fellowship
  • Honors College Fellowship
  • Sturgis Fellowship
  • Toller Fellowship

When referring to recipients, capitalize fellow if it is used with the name of the specific fellowship: Mary Smith is a Sturgis Fellow. Lowercase if it stands alone: This year's fellows will meet at noon.


See the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act entry.

fewer, less

In general, use fewer for individual items and less for quantities in bulk: The team scored fewer points. The players ate less food.

field of study

Generically, the phrases field of study and program of study are often used interchangeably, but writers should be aware of a difference between the two. In academic use at the University of Arkansas, a program of study might refer to an undergraduate or graduate program, but field of study is used to refer to the discipline-specific set of requirements in a graduate program of study, similar to the way major is used to refer to an undergraduate program of study.

Use lowercase: She is a student in the field of mechanical engineering.

See also the major and program of study entries.

'Fight Song'

Capitalize and place in quotes when referring specifically to the university's "Fight Song." William Edwin Douglas wrote the words to the "Fight Song" prior to his graduation in 1913, and music professor Henry Tovey added music at a later date. Writers should be aware that copyright to the "Fight Song" has belonged to Southern Music, and the university has been granted permission to use the song.

figuratively, literally

The use of a figurative expression means that one example is being used metaphorically in place of another: Figuratively, she turned the corner on finishing her thesis.

On the other hand, literally is used to give the exact example. It should not be used in place of figuratively. Wrong: She literally turned the corner on finishing her thesis. (Unless the woman walked around a real corner to hand her thesis to her adviser.)

Fine Arts Center

Built in 1950, the center was designed by the renowned architect Edward Durell Stone as the first facility in America to integrate the performing and visual arts. The building is home to a theatrical stage, a concert hall, an art gallery, the fine arts library, art studios and classrooms. It is connected by a skywalk to the George and Boyce Billingsley Music Building. Its building code is FNAR.

Capitalize both of these portions of the Fine Arts Center.

First Security Auditorium

This auditorium seats 140 and is in Willard J. Walker Hall.

first-generation (adj.)

Use this term to describe a student who is the first in their family to attend college: She is a first-generation engineering student. The informal first-gen is permissible on second reference in quotes or instances when an informal tone is desired.

Avoid using first-generation to describe immigrants because of the ambiguity between whether the term refers to a parent who has immigrated or a child born to those parents in their new land. Instead, write specifically about the difference. 

first-year student

Because of the gender specificity of freshman and freshmen, general preference is given to use of first-year student, although freshman or freshmen may be more appropriate when used with other class names: sophomore, junior and senior.

Writers should also recognize that transfer students, graduate students or international students might consider themselves first-year students at the University of Arkansas though not freshmen.

See also the freshman, freshmen, frosh and student standing entries.

fiscal year

The 12-month period that an organization uses for bookkeeping purposes. The university's fiscal year begins July 1 each year and ends June 30 of the following calendar year.

See also the academic year and calendar year entries.


The Associated Press prefers flautist to flutist for one who plays the flute.

flier, flyer

Flier is the preferred term for an aviator or a handbill. Flyer is the proper name of some trains and buses: the Western Flyer.


Acceptable in all references for the frequency modulation system of radio transmission.

See also KUAF.


No hyphen: twofold, fourfold, tenfold.

Food Science Building

The Food Science Building is a 52,000-square-foot complex used for teaching, research and extension programs of the food science department. The initial building was erected in 1978, and numerous expansions have occurred, the most recent in 2006. It is at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center, and its building code is FDSC.

The basic length of measurement in the United States. The metric equivalent is 30.48 centimeters.

See also the centimeter, meter, and dimensions entries.


In general, no hyphen: forestall, foreword.

forego, forgo

To forego means to go before. To forgo means to abstain.

foreign currency

When dealing with financial numbers from foreign countries, convert foreign currencies to American dollars whenever possible. If a foreign currency is used in a quote, include the American dollar value in parenthesis: The professor said, "The new supercomputer cost 10 million euros (about $13.1 million)." Currency converters are available online.

Spell out the names of foreign currencies rather than use the foreign symbol, including the word dollar when it refers to foreign currency, such as Canadian dollars. Some common currencies:

  • € - European euro
  • £ - British pound
  • ¥ - Japanese yen, Chinese yuan

foreign words

The English language has melted many foreign words and phrases into common use, such as taco, versus, et cetera. Use them without explanation.

Many foreign words, however, have not yet attained that status but may still be useful for a particular story. If using a foreign word or phrase, italicize it and provide an explanation of its meaning (since the full example is italicized in this instance, the foreign phrase is de-italicized): She described the research as sui generis, or uniquely its own style.

foreword, forward

The former is an author's statement prior to the narrative of a book; the latter is a direction of travel. Do not write forwards.

If referring to a specific foreword in a book, treat it like the name of a chapter and capitalize it: The book's Foreword by Mary Jones.

formal titles

See titles.


When referring to someone who no longer holds a title, use of former generally works. There are certain titles, however, that are not relinquished. For instance, an athlete who has competed in the Olympics will always be an Olympian. In such instances, rewording can usually still achieve the desire, such as: The student is a former competitor in the Olympiad.

foul, fowl

Foul means offensive. Fowl means a bird.

Founders Hall

Founders Hall is the name of a five- and six-story residence hall erected on the west side of McIlroy Avenue. It is the first of several buildings that will add residential space to that part of campus and create a new quad. Construction began in 2012 and finished in time for students to move in for the fall 2013 semester. Part of the building also allowed expansion of the dining hall, now known as 1021 W. Dickson.

It is open to all students and has about 214 beds available. Its abbreviation is FNDR.


Capitalize the proper names of fountains on campus. Among them:

4-H Club

Members are 4-H'ers.

Fowler House

See the Wallace W. and Jama M. Fowler House entry.


Spell out fractions less than one: three-fifths, four-sixteenths. Use figures for amounts above one, using decimals where possible: 1 3/4 or 1.75.

See the decimals entry.

Frank Broyles Athletic Center

On second reference, Broyles Center is sufficient. Part of the Donald W. Reynolds Razorback Stadium, the center houses the administrative offices of the department of intercollegiate athletics, an athletic museum and an indoor practice room. It was named for Frank Broyles, a longtime coach and athletic director.

Frank O’Mara Track and Field High Performance Center

The Frank O'Mara Track and Field High Performance Center is on the southern end of John McDonnell Field and provides training space for student athletes in the university's men's and women's track and field programs. O'Mara was an early standout runner for the Razorbacks during the early 1980s, running the mile and 3,000-meter runs primarily. He was a three-time Olympian and was twice the World Indoor Champion in the 3,000-meter race.


See the Greek entry.

freshman, freshmen

Use freshman as a singular noun or an adjective: He is a freshman, the freshman class. Use freshmen as the plural noun: All of the freshmen attended. Avoid use of the informal frosh.

See the first-year student and student standing entries.

Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences

On first reference, use Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences; on second reference, Fulbright College is sufficient and the preferred shorthand. Also capitalize College of Arts and Sciences if it refers specifically to the Fulbright College. Lowercase college when it stands alone.

The college is named for J. William Fulbright, an alumnus and president of the university and later a longtime senator from Arkansas credited with introducing legislation to establish the international exchange program that bears his name.

The university recognizes that J. William Fulbright’s political legacy is controversial and complex. Along with signing the Southern Manifesto and opposing the landmark 1954 ruling of Brown v. Board of Education, Fulbright voted to filibuster the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and voted against the 1965 Voting Rights Act. These actions directly contradicted his efforts to advance cultural understanding, peace, and international exchange through education.

Fulbright Dining Hall

Built as part of the Northwest Quad in 2004, the dining hall of the quad was named in honor of Roberta Waugh Fulbright in 2012. Fulbright was a businesswoman, newspaper publisher and civic leader in Fayetteville and a benefactor of the University of Arkansas. She was also the mother of J. William Fulbright.

A previous residence hall and dining hall that stood near the present site of the Maple Hill Residence Hall were named in honor of Roberta Fulbright. They were removed by the mid-2000s to allow construction of Maple Hill.

Fulbright Peace Fountain

Dedicated in 1998, the fountain was designed by Fay Jones and Maurice Jennings.


Hyphenate when used to form compound modifiers: full-fledged, full-length, full-scale.

fundraiser (n.), fundraising (v. or adj.)

One word.


See the farther, further entry.

Futrall Hall

Dedicated in 1963 as a women's residence hall, Futrall Hall was named for Annie Duke Futrall, who served on the University of Arkansas Board of Trustees and was married to John C. Futrall, a former president of the university. It is open to women and has about 193 beds available to students. Its abbreviation is FUTR.


G. David Gearhart Hall

Built in 1940, G. David Gearhart Hall was originally called simply Classroom Building. It was soon attached to the earlier Commerce Building and the name was changed to the Business Administration Building. The name was changed again to Ozark Hall when a new Business Building was built in 1978. In 2013, a major renovation of the hall updated the Graduate School's wing of the building and provided an addition to house the Honors College. In 2015, the Board of Trustees renamed the hall in honor of former Chancellor G. David Gearhart. It is also home to the Department of Geosciences and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. On second reference, Gearhart Hall is sufficient. Its building code is GEAR.


From the late 1940s to the mid-1960s, students organized a midway-style carnival each spring called Gaebale, with student groups creating booths and performing on a central stage. Efforts to revive the event still occasionally occur. The name Gaebale is an acronym for the colleges and schools at the university during that period: Graduate, Arts and Sciences, Education, Business, Agriculture, Law, and Engineering.

gamut, gantlet, gauntlet

A gamut is a complete scale or range. To run the gamut, then, means to go through an entire range.

Gantlet, a variation on the spelling of gauntlet, is more often used to refer to a military punishment in which the offender runs between two rows of soldiers and is flogged by them. Running the gantlet means to suffer a prolonged ordeal, either literally or figuratively.

A guantlet is a glove. Throwing down the gauntlet means to issue a challenge. Taking up the gauntlet means to accept a challenge.


Capitalize when part of a proper name. See individual entries for:

  • The Gardens
  • Garvan Woodland Gardens
  • Horticulture Display Gardens
  • Linda Shollmier Plaza
  • Locke Memorial Garden
  • Maple Hill Arboretum
  • National Pan-Hellenic Council Gardens
  • Old Main Arboretum
  • Richard B. Atkinson Memorial Courtyard

The Gardens

Designed for tailgate parties prior to games, The Gardens cover 6.5 acres along Razorback Road and include a pavilion and picnic facilities. They were dedicated in 2006. The acreage formerly contained part of the Carlson Terrace residential housing.

Capitalize "The" as part of the name. Treat the name as a plural: The Gardens are open prior to the game.

See also gardens, gazebos and pavilions.

Garland Center

The Garland Center opened in 2010 on the block bounded by Garland Avenue, Douglas Street, Lindell Avenue and Cleveland Street. The center comprises retail facilities known as the Garland Avenue Shops, which include the University of Arkansas Bookstore, the Razorback Shop, a technology store, and several commercial retailers. The building code for the Garland Avenue Shops is GACS.

The center also includes a multistory parking facility called the Garland Avenue Garage. It has 1,500 parking spots with a mixture of permit parking and meter parking. Its building code is GAPG.

Garrison Financial Institute

Established in 2005, the institute is based in the Sam M. Walton College of Business. The institute provides students with opportunities to learn about investment through experience. It also fosters research about best financial practices and contributes to the economic development of Arkansas.

Garvan Woodland Gardens

Administered by the university's department of landscape architecture, this 210-acre botanical garden was established in 1985 by Verna Cook Garvan and fully acquired by the university in 1993 when she died. It is located on Lake Hamilton near Hot Springs. On second reference, Garvan Gardens is sufficient.

Gatewood Hall

Built as part of the Northwest Quad in 2004, the southeast building of the quad was renamed the Willard B. Gatewood Hall posthumously in honor of former chancellor Willard B. Gatewood. It is open to all students and has about 106 beds available. Its building code is GTWR.


This word may be used to refer to men or women who are attracted to people of the same sex. The term lesbian may be preferred by women. Use only when pertinent to a story. Avoid phrases such as “sexual preference,” “gay lifestyle” or “alternative lifestyle.”

Refer also to the lesbian and straight entries.


Several gazebos are used at The Gardens and named for benefactors:

  • 1964 and 1965 Football Teams Gazebo
  • Charles and Clydene Sharlau Family Gazebo
  • George Family Gazebo
  • NCAA National Championship Gazebo
  • Stanley Reed Family Gazebo
See also gardens and pavilions.


In most stories, gender is unnecessary except that personal pronouns such as he and she, his and hers, and him and her often help readability when used on second reference. Use of they, them or their as a singular pronoun is preferred when gender is neutral, unknown or requested by the subject of the writing. Writers should be aware that proposals for additional gendered and non-gendered pronouns continue to be advocated, and a particular pronoun might be used by a particular subject.

When possible, avoid gender-biased language. Instead of mailman, for instance, use postal carrier for both women and men. Similarly for groups of people, use non-gendered words such as friends, colleagues, associates, staff members or faculty rather than a limiting phrase such as boys and girls or ladies and gentlemen.

When using gender-specific language, use parallel treatment for men, women and non-binary people.

Avoid using female or male as nouns. Use them in a parallel manner as adjectives.

Some common gender-neutral terms from The Non-Sexist Word Finder:

Gender specific   Gender neutral
actress   actor
alderman/woman   alder, alderperson, council member
businessman   business owner, entrepreneur
career woman   professional, executive
chairman/woman   chair, committee head, facilitator
committeeman/woman   committee member
congressman/woman   member of Congress, representative
councilman/woman   councilor, council member
faculty husband/wife   faculty spouse
fireman/woman   firefighter
freshman   first-year student
layman's terms   plain, nontechnical, ordinary
leading man/lady   lead actor, principal actor
letterman/woman   letterholder
man, mankind   humanity, human society, people
middleman   go-between, broker, arbiter
ombudsman/woman   ombud, intermediary, referee
patrolman/woman   patrol officer
policeman/woman   officer, police officer, peace officer
right-hand man   aide, right-hand assistant, deputy
salesman/woman   salesclerk, seller, vendor
spokesman/woman   speaker, representative, agent
underclassman/woman   undergraduate, underclass student
upperclassman/woman   junior, senior, upperclass student
workmanship   handiwork, artisanry, skill
See also the following entries on cisgender, gay, he, him, his, her, she, hers, it, its, lesbian, personal pronouns, straight, they, them, their and transgender.

General Assembly

The chief legislative body of Arkansas is the General Assembly, which comprises a 35-member Senate and a 100-member House of Representatives. On second reference, it can be referred to as the Legislature. It meets once every two years for general consideration of new laws, resolutions and setting budgets, and each off-year for additional budget consideration.

Genesis Technology Incubator

Based at the Engineering Research Center, the incubator provides technology-based companies with research and development support. On second reference, Genesis is sufficient. Don't use all-capitalization.

genus, species

Italicize the scientific or biological names. Capitalize the genus, and lowercase the species: Homo sapiens, Tyrannosaurus rex. For common names of species, leave in Roman type and lowercase unless part of the name is a proper name: spiderwort, cat, Moore's delphinium, brown recluse.

Geology Building

Built in 1947 as the Ordark Building for ordinance research in the post-World War II years, the building later became home to the geology department. It was razed in August 2011 to provide room for construction of the new Hillside Auditorium.

George and Boyce Billingsley Music Building

Built in 1978, the building is attached by skywalk to the Fine Arts Center. It is named for university benefactors. On second reference, Billingsley Music Building is sufficient. Its building code is MUSC.

George W. Combs Memorial Auditorium

The auditorium is in the Bell Engineering Center and seats about 260 people. On second reference, Combs Auditorium is sufficient.

Gibson Annex

Built in 1937 along with Gibson Hall, the annex now houses a student computer laboratory. Its building code is GIBX.

Gibson Hall

Built in 1937, it was originally called Razorback Hall and primarily housed student athletes at a time when the athletic fields were just out the back door. It was renamed Gibson Hall in 1981 in memory of James L. Gibson, who had been housing director from 1969 until his death in 1981. Gibson Hall is a women's hall today and has about 98 beds available for students. Its building code is GIBS.

Giffels Auditorium

The auditorium is on the second floor of Old Main, and it seats about 300 people. It is named for Irma Fitch Giffels, an alumna and benefactor of the university.

gifted and talented

Use lowercase unless part of a proper name: the gifted and talented students; the Arkansas Gifted and Talented Program. Do not use the abbreviation G&T.


A prefix meaning 1 billion units of a measure: gigabyte, gigaton.

Gladson-Ripley Hall

Built in 1954, it was named in honor of William N. Gladson, a former dean of the College of Engineering, and Giles E. Ripley, a physics professor and later dean of men. Its building code is GLAD.

Global Campus

Global Campus serves as a portal for online, distance and professional education programs and courses provided by the University of Arkansas. Staff members collaborate with the university’s academic colleges and schools and other academic units to develop courses and programs tailored to online, distance and professional students. The building in which Global Campus is housed on the Fayetteville Square is also called the University of Arkansas Global Campus Building.

Correspondence courses were organized at the university in 1919 with creation of the General Extension Division. Its name was changed to the Division of Continuing Education in 1976. In 2006, the name was changed to the School for Continuing Education and Academic Outreach, and the University of Arkansas Global Campus was adopted in 2008 for marketing purposes and changed permanently to Global Campus in 2019.


Not goodby.

good, well

Good is an adjective meaning virtuous or better than average: She is a good person; he is a good student.

When used as an adjective, well means proper or healthy: She is feeling well. When used as an adverb, well means in a proper way or skillfully: She paints well.

Do not use good as an adverb.

good will (n.), goodwill (adj.)

Examples: A gesture of good will; the goodwill project.


Capitalize and abbreviate as Gov. or Govs. when used as a formal title before one or more names: Gov. Mike Beebe. Lowercase and spell out otherwise.


Use a capital letter without quotes to show the letter grade received in a class: She made a B on the midterm.

Spell out plus and minus when showing incremental grades and join with a hyphen: He made a B-plus in chemistry; Her grade was A-minus.

Use an apostrophe to show plurals: She earned all A's and B's.

grade point average

GPA is permissible on second reference. Grade point averages are computed semesterly and cumulatively to assess overall performance.

Points are assigned to letter grades. For most colleges and schools, the points assigned are 4 points for an A, 3 points for a B, 2 points for a C, 1 point for a D and no points for an F. The Fay Jones School of Architecture and Design and the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences assess incremental points for grades with a plus or minus.

To determine the grade point average, multiply the hours taken in each class by the grade points earned in each class to get total points for each class. Then add the number of total points for each class and divide by the total number of hours taken:


Composition 3 A 4.00 12
Algebra 3 A 4.00 12
Accounting 3 B 3.00 9
Physics 3 A 4.00 12
Physics lab 1 A 4.00 4
Ballet 2 C 2.00 4
Total 15     53

In this example, divide 53 by 15 to get a grade point average of 3.53. Give the GPA out to two decimal places.

graduate (n.), graduate, graduated, graduating (v.); graduated (adj.)

Graduate is correctly used in the active voice: She graduated from the University of Arkansas. The university graduated 3,000 students. It is correct, but unnecessary, to use the passive voice: He was graduated from the university. Do not, however, drop from.

  • RIGHT: Jackie Shropshire graduated from the University of Arkansas.
  • WRONG: Shropshire graduated Arkansas.

When graduated is used as an adjective, it means to marked into units of measurement: graduated beaker.

graduate assistant

Don't use GA or shorten to grad assistant except in quoted material.

Graduate Education Building

Built in 1968, the building includes the offices of the College of Education and Health Professions and the Graduate Education Auditorium, which seats 130 people. Its building code is GRAD. Writers should be aware that the Graduate School is not based in this building.

Graduate Professional Student Congress

This body was created in 2015 and represents and advocates on behalf of graduate students and students in professional fields such as the School of Law. It also distributes money from student activity fees paid by graduate and professional students. The organization is made up of an executive branch with an elected president, vice president, treasurer and secretary, and a legislative branch called the Graduate Professional Student Congress Assembly, or Graduate Assembly on second reference.

Graduate School and International Education

Capitalize when referring to the university's unit that oversees both the Graduate School and the programs for international education.

Use Graduate School when referring to graduate studies alone. Lowercase school when it stands alone. The Graduate School of Business and the School of Law are part of the Graduate School. It offers degrees at the master, specialist and doctoral levels as well as graduate certification for some specialized professional needs. The Graduate School is based in Gearhart Hall.

The Graduate School also oversees international education, both the recruitment of international students to the university and the development of study abroad programs for domestic students who want to study internationally.

See also the study abroad entry.

Graduate School of Business

The Graduate School of Business is part of the general Graduate School. Its offices are based in the Sam M. Walton School of Business.

See also the Sam M. Walton College of Business entry.

Grady E. Harvell Civil Engineering Research and Education Center

The Grady E. Harvell Civil Engineering Research and Education Center is a 37,400-square-foot facility at the Arkansas Research and Technology Park. The facility serves as a research and teaching space for the Department of Civil Engineering. It is named for alumnus Grady E. Harvell in honor of his longtime advocacy and support of the project. Its building code is HCEC.


The basic unit of weight in the metric system. To convert to ounces, multiply the number of grams by 0.035.

grant-in-aid (s.), grants-in-aid (pl.)



Capitalize when used to define a community and its surrounding region: Greater Little Rock.

Great Expectations of Arkansas

Based in the College of Education and Health Professions, this center prepares teachers and administrators to create classroom change through effective environments.


Capitalize whether referring either to the nationality or to fraternity members. Also capitalize names of fraternities and sororities: Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Alpha Delta Pi Sorority. Do not use the Greek alphabet or informal abbreviations such as ADPi. Use the full name and spell them out. When referring to the department within the Division of Student Affairs that oversees the fraternities and sororities on campus, capitalize Greek Life.

Fraternities Sororities
Alpha Gamma Rho Alpha Chi Omega
Alpha Phi Alpha Alpha Delta Pi
Beta Theta Phi Alpha Kappa Alpha
Farmhouse Alpha Omicron Pi
Kappa Alpha Order Chi Omega
Kappa Alpha Psi Delta Delta Delta
Kappa Sigma Delta Sigma Theta
Lambda Chi Alpha Kappa Delta
Omega Psi Phi Kappa Kappa Gamma
Phi Beta Sigma Phi Mu
Phi Delta Theta Pi Beta Phi
Phi Gamma Delta Sigma Iota Alpha
Pi Kappa Alpha Zeta Phi Beta
Sigma Alpha Epsilon Zeta Tau Alpha
Sigma Chi  
Sigma Nu  
Sigma Phi Epsilon  

Greek Theatre

See Chi Omega Greek Theatre.

Gregson Hall

Built in 1949, it was named for William S. "Pop" Gregson, who served in numerous positions at the university during a 35-year tenure. It is open to all students and has about 203 beds available for students. Its building code is GREG.


Takes singular verbs and pronouns: The group is protesting its inclusion.


Gym'Backs is the name of the women's gymnastics team.



See the disabled, handicapped, impaired entry.

hangar, hanger

A hangar is a building for aircraft. A hanger is for clothes.

Harding Hall

Built as part of the Northwest Quad in 2004, the southwest building of the quad was renamed Harding Hall posthumously in honor of the former university resident, Arthur M. Harding. Harding Hall is open to all students and has about 162 beds for students. Its building code is HRDR.

Harmon Avenue Parking Facility

Built in 2005, the parking facility includes 2,149 parking spaces, the McMillon Innovation Studio, and offices of the Wally Cordes Teaching and Faculty Support Center. The facility can be entered from Harmon and Duncan avenues and Williams Street. At the time of its construction, it was the largest parking facility in Arkansas. Its building code is HAPF.

Harry R. Rosen Alternative Pest Control Center

Built in 1995, it was named for Harry R. Rosen, a plant pathology professor from 1918 to 1958 who was a leader in developing disease-resistant varieties of wheat and oats. On second reference, the Rosen Center is sufficient. Its building code is ROSE.


The hashtag #UARK is preferred for most social media uses and can be used as a foundational block for such hashtags as #UARKlife or #UARK18 for a particular graduating class. When responding to social media postings from outside the university that do not use such derivatives, feel free to re-use such the original hashtag to maintain its thread, but also include the #UARK hashtag when possible.

See also the social media entry.


The poultry hatchery is a unit of the Center of Excellence for Poultry Science and is located at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center. Its building code is HATC.

he, him, his

If two or more people are mentioned in an article, make sure the pronouns are clearly referring to the intended person. These pronouns are sufficient on second reference for people who identify as men. Do not use these pronouns in reference to objects, except in quoted matter. For instance, if writing about Hurricane Ike, don't write he came ashore or his destructiveness. Use the pronouns it or its: It came ashore; its destructiveness.

See also the her, hers, shethey, them, their and the personal pronoun entries.

Writers should note that some academic departments have heads rather than chairs. Capitalize when used before a person's name but lowercase otherwise: department Head Jill Jones; Jill Jones, head of the electrical engineering department.

headlines and titles

Headlines and titles are synonyms, and the only difference is that newspapers use the form and magazines the latter. They are the primary display type  

When writing a headline or title, follow the publication's style for capitalization. Design often plays a paramount role. Traditionally, headlines and titles are written in the present tense; double quote marks are reduced to single quote marks, and most articles — a, an and the — are eliminated: Professor of Physics Discovers 'Impossible' Solution.

In media releases prepared by university relations, the main headline is treated like a book title. The first letter of each word — except conjunctions, articles and prepositions of fewer than five letters — is capitalized.

Headline style can vary among different publications, online sources and within a single publication. Consult the respective editor.

For online use, writers should understand that the use of styles such as Heading 1, Heading 2, etc., will be translated into a web page with a specific typeface and size set by style of the page rather than by a particular typeface or size that the writer chooses. Consult a web editor to understand when and how to use headline styles.

See also the captions and cutlines entry.

health care

The Associated Press makes this two words. The Center for Innovation in Healthcare Logistics at the university, however, spells it as one word.

health center

See the Pat Walker Health Center entry.

Health Education Projects Office

The office provides schools and communities with effective health education programs as well as research in selected health education areas. It is based in the department of health science, kinesiology, recreation and dance in the College of Education and Health Professions.

Health, Physical Education and Recreation Building

Built in 1984, the building includes 10 racquetball courts, four basketball gyms, an indoor jogging track, an Olympic-size pool, a climbing wall, men's and women's saunas, a computer laboratory, locker rooms, a human performance laboratory and classrooms. It also includes dance and gymnastics studios, the Donna Axum Fitness Center, and the Outdoor Connection Center.

The College of Education and Health Professions also operates the campus intramural and recreational programs in the HPER Building.

On second reference, HPER may be used as a modifier: The HPER Building is open nights. Its building code is HPER.

heavenly bodies

Capitalize the proper names of planets, stars, constellations, etc.: Jupiter, Vega, Ursa Major, the Little Dipper.

For comets, capitalize only the proper noun element of a name: Halley's comet.

Lowercase sun and moon, but capitalize them if their Greek or Latin names are used: Helios, Luna.

Capitalize nouns and adjectives derived from the proper names of planets: Martian, Venusian, but lowercase adjectives derived from other heavenly bodies: solar, lunar.

See also the earth and planets entries.


See dimensions.

Helen Robson Walton Reading Room

This reading room is in Mullins Library, and it is named for Helen Walton, a benefactor of the university and wife of Sam M. Walton. On second reference, Walton Reading Room is sufficient.

Hembree Alumni House

See the Janelle Y. Hembree Alumni House entry.

Hembree Auditorium

See the H.L. Hembree Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences Auditorium entry.

her, hers, she

If two or more people are mentioned in an article, make sure the pronouns are clearly referring to the intended person. These pronouns are sufficient on second reference for people who identify as women.

Do not use these pronouns in reference to nations, ships or universities, except in quoted matter. Use the pronouns it or its: The Queen Elizabeth II docked. It held more than 4,000 passengers. The University of Arkansas was founded in 1871. Alumni celebrated its 100th anniversary in 1971.

See also the he, him, histhey, them, their the personal pronoun entries.

High Density Electronics Center

Established in 1991, the High Density Electronics Center is located at the Arkansas Research and Technology Park on the south side of Fayetteville. The center includes labs for materials analysis, fabrication and reliability testing. It also has a 4,000-square-foot clean room that allows researchers to build and test micro- and nanoscale devices.

On second reference, HiDEC is allowable but should be used sparingly for external documents. Preference would be to refer to it as the center or the electronics center. Its building code is HDEC.

highway designations

Use these forms for highways identified by number: U.S. Highway 71, Arkansas Highway 16, Interstate 540. On second reference, U.S. 71, Arkansas 16, and I-540 are sufficient. If a letter is appended to the highway number to show that it is a business route or a spur, capitalize it: U.S. 62B.


Capitalize when part of a formal name: Markham Hill, Rose Hill, Maple Hill. Also capitalize when referring the colloquial name for campus: She studied on the Hill.

See the on the Hill entry.

Hill Magazine

Started in 2013 as the Arkansas Traveler Magazine, the name was changed to the Hill Magazine in 2016. It is one of five student media overseen by the Student Media Advisory Board. Italicize its name.

See student media.

Hillside Auditorium

Construction of the new Hillside Auditorium to replace the Science-Engineering Auditorium began in summer 2011. It opened in time for the start of classes in January 2013. The auditorium is actually two auditoriums, one that will seat 487 and a second that will seat 290.

The building is registered to attain Silver LEED certification and includes a three-tiered roof system, much of which is covered with grass, trees and other greenery. Its building code is HILL.

Hispanic (adj.)

This term is acceptable in describing a person who is from or whose heritage is from a Spanish-speaking land or culture. Latino, Latina, Latinx and Spanish are often preferred. Follow a person’s preference, and use more specific identification whenever possible, such as Mexican American, Chilean or Puerto Rican.

Refer also to the Latino, Latina, Latinx entry.

historical periods and events

Capitalize the names of widely recognized epochs in anthropology, archaeology, geology and history: the Bronze Age, the Pleistocene Epoch, the Middle Ages.

Also capitalize widely recognized popular names for periods and events: the Civil War, Reconstruction, the Great Depression, Prohibition, the Summer of Love, the Roaring '20s.

Lowercase a numbered century: the 18th century.

Capitalize only the proper nouns or adjectives in general descriptions of a period: ancient Greece, the Victorian era, the fall of Rome.

See the ice age entry.

historical buildings

Occasionally, reference may be needed to a building no longer standing on campus. Nine buildings and groups of buildings are known to have been named for faculty and alumni:

  • Buchanan Hall
    Named for John L. Buchanan, a former university president.
  • Camp Leroy Pond
    Named for an alumnus who died in World War II.
  • Camp Neil Martin
    Named for an alumnus who died in World War II.
  • Carlson Terrace
    Named for T.C. Carlson, a vice president for finance.
  • Gray Hall
    Named for Oliver C. Gray, a former mathematics professor.
  • Fulbright Hall and Fulbright Dining Hall
    Named for Roberta Waugh Fulbright, a benefactor. The dining hall at the Northwest Quad is named in her honor today.
  • Hill Hall
    Named for Daniel H. Hill, a former university president.
  • Lloyd Halls
    Named for Edgar "Buck" Lloyd, who died in World War II.
  • Terry Village
    Named for Seymour Terry, who died in World War II.
See also the National Register of Historic Places entry.


Avoid the redundant past history.

H.L. Hembree Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences Auditorium

The auditorium is in the Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences Building. It seats 144 people. It is named for an alumnus and benefactor. On second reference, Hembree Auditorium is sufficient. Do not confuse it with the Janelle Y. Hembree Alumni House.

Hog Call

The official cheer of the men's and women's athletic teams. Capitalize it.

See also Wooo, Pig, Sooie.


Capitalize when referring to the mascot.

Holcombe Hall

Built in 1948, this residence hall was named for Jobelle Holcombe, a faculty member from 1901 to 1942, dean of women and a founding member of the Chi Omega Sorority. Originally a women's hall, it is open to all students now and includes an international living learning community. Holcombe Hall has about 143 beds for students. Its building code is HOLC.

holidays and holy days

Capitalize them: New Year's Day, Groundhog Day, Easter, Hanukkah.

The legal holidays in Arkansas are New Year's Day, Martin Luther King Jr.'s birthday, George Washington's birthday and Daisy Gatson Bates Day (same day), Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Veterans Day, Thanksgiving, and both Christmas Eve and Christmas Day. Although the federal government does not recognize Daisy Gatson Bates Day, the federal calendar does have an additional holiday on Columbus Day.

University classes meet on George Washington's birthday, Veterans Day and Columbus Day.


Capitalize when referring to the specific weekend when alumni are welcomed back to campus. Lowercase otherwise.

home economics

See the School of Human Environmental Sciences.

Home Management House

This house at 520 Storer Ave. houses several faculty and staff members of the School of Human Environmental Sciences. Its building code is HMGH.

home page

Use as two words for the main page of a website.


One word.

honorary degrees

Honorary degrees are awarded by the University of Arkansas each year at commencement. When referring to someone who holds an honorary degree, writers should make clear that the degree is honorary. The Associated Press recommends avoiding the use of abbreviations of honorary degrees unless in a list of honorary degree holders.

Do not refer to an honorary degree holder with the courtesy title Dr. Do not use the abbreviation of the degree except in a table or list of honorary degree holders.

  • RIGHT: Queen Noor, who holds an honorary humanities degree from the University of Arkansas, said …
  • WRONG: Queen Noor, L.H.D., said …

For a list of honorary degree recipients, see the most recent commencement program. The following list shows honorary degrees that have been awarded by the university.

Honorary Degree   Abbr.
Doctor of Arts and Humane Letters   D.A.H.
Doctor of Arts and Sciences   D.Ar.Sc.
Doctor of Divinity (Divinitatis Doctor)   D.D.
Doctor of Engineering   D.Eng.
Doctor of Fine Arts   D.F.A.
Doctor of Humanities   D.H.
Doctor of Honorary Humanities   D.H.H.
Doctor of Humane Letters (Litterarum Humaniorum Doctor)   D.H.L or L.H.D.
Doctor of Laws (Legum Doctor)   LL.D.
Doctor of Philosophy (Philosophaie Doctor)   Ph.D.
Doctor of Science (Scientiae Doctor)   Sc.D.
See also academic degrees.

Horticulture Display Gardens

These gardens are east of the Rosen Alternative Pest Control Center.

Horticulture Field Laboratory

The laboratory is located at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center. Its building code is HOFL.

Hotz Honors Hall

Built in 1964 as a residential hall, Hotz Hall was converted to administrative offices during the 1990s. It was renovated in 2012 and turned back into a residence hall, reopening for the fall 2013 semester for students who are members of the Honors College. It has about 416 beds.

It was named for Henry G. and Stella Palmer Hotz. Henry Hotz was a faculty member for 24 years, including 11 years as dean of what was then called the College of Education. Stella Palmer Hotz served on the faculty for six years between 1918 and 1925 and was the first woman to attain the rank of full tenured professor at the university. Its building code is HOTZ.

House of Representatives

Capitalize when referring either to the U.S. House of Representatives or the Arkansas House of Representatives. Also capitalize shorter references to the same body: the Arkansas House.


See the University Housing and residence hall entries.


See the Health, Physical Education and Recreation Building entry.

Human Environmental Sciences Building

Originally called the Home Economics Building and erected in 1940, this building is on the National Register of Historic Places. It houses the offices of the School of Human Environmental Sciences. Its building code is HOEC.

Human Performance Laboratory

Based in the College of Education and Health Professions, the laboratory researches health and well-being for targeted populations.

Humphreys Hall

Built in 1961, this residential hall was named for Allen S. Humphreys, a former chemistry professor. Humphreys Hall has about 346 beds and is open to all students. Its building code is HUMP.

Hunt Center, Hunt Hall

See the J.B. Hunt Transport Services Inc. Center for Academic Excellence and the Silas H. Hunt Hall entries.


Capitalize as part of a proper name: Hurricane Katrina, but lowercase otherwise. Do not use he, she, him, her, his or hers in pronoun references. Use it.


Generally, no hyphen: hyperactive, hypercritical, hypertext.


Hyphens are joiners. Use them to join two words to form a single idea. Compound modifiers are usually joined by a hyphen: the fall-semester courses, a little-known professor. On occasion, a compound modifier is so well recognized as a single idea that a hyphen is unneeded: the high school teacher, the health care office. Use a hyphen if ambiguity would arise without its use.

No hyphen is necessary for compound proper adjectives denoting dual heritage: Asian American, Italian American, Mexican American.

No hyphen is needed between adverbs and adjectives: the early morning class, the very red Razorback, the scholarly sounding remark.

Do not put spaces on either side of a hyphen.

See also the dash entry.


ice age

Unlike most references to time periods, ice age should be lowercase because it doesn't refer to a single period but any one of a series of cold periods marked by glaciation. The recent series of ice ages began about 1.6 million years ago during the Pleistocene epoch. Glaciers covered much of North America and northwest Europe. The present epoch, the Holocene, sometimes called the Recent, began about 10,000 years ago when the continental glaciers retreated.


See the allusion, illusion entry.

Il Porcellino

A replica of a 385-year-old bronze statue by Italian artist Pietro Tacca, Il Porcellino depicts a young wild boar sitting on its haunches. The Tacca statue was a replica of an even older Greek marble statue. The original bronze is in Florence, Italy, while other replicas of the statue can be found around the world. The university's statue was installed in 2006 in front of University House on Maple Street. As with other works of art, the name should be italicized.

imply, infer

Writers or speakers imply meaning through the words they use. A listener or reader infers meaning from the words.

in, into

In indicates location: He is in the residence hall. The word into indicates motion: She walked into the classroom.


Precede with a hyphen: break-in, cave-in.


No hyphen when it is used to mean not: inaccurate, inexplicable. It is often used solid in other uses too: indoor, infield, infighting. A few combinations take a hyphen: in-depth, in-law. Follow Webster's New World Dictionary.


Abbreviate and capitalize as Inc. when used as part of a corporate name. Do not set it off by commas: Tyson Foods Inc. announced today.

index, indexes

Although indices is often used as a plural, the Associated Press prefers adding es.


Refer to the American Indian entry.

Indigenous (adj.)

Capitalize this term when referring to the original inhabitants of a place. Lowercase in generic uses: The Inuit are the Indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions; the plant is indigenous to Florida.

Refer also to the American Indian, Native American and native, Native entries.

indiscreet, indiscrete

Indiscreet means lacking judiciousness or prudence. Indiscrete means an object is not separated into distinct parts.


Usually capitalized and hyphenated: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian. A couple of exceptions are Indochina and Indonesia.

indoor (adj.), indoors (adv.)

Examples: She trains on the indoor climbing wall. He went indoors.

Infant Development Center

See the Jean Tyson Child Development Study Center entry.


Infinitives are the form of a verb used as a noun: To stay is better than to go.

Splitting an infinitive by adding an adverb to the middle of an infinitive — adding quickly into the infinitive to go, for instance, to make to quickly go — is generally frowned upon by grammarians. Writers should keep adverbs outside the infinitives where possible: to go quickly.

Occasionally, however, more ambiguity arises by putting the adverb outside the infinitive. An example: The team's strong play is sure to extend further Razorback hopes for a winning season. Does further modify to extend or Razorback hopes? Splitting the infinitive would remove doubt in this instance.

Similarly, some split infinitives are nearly impossible to avoid: The student refused to so much as listen to the professor's explanation. The chancellor expects the six-year graduation rate to more than double.

See also the verbs entry.

information technology

On second reference, IT is permissible when used as a modifier: IT resources, IT Services, the IT Research Institute.

Information Technology Services

This center operates the university's computing network and technology resources, provides training to students, faculty and staff, and oversees use by university members. On second reference, IT Services is sufficient.

Information Technology Research Institute

The institute is an interdisciplinary unit for research within the Sam M. Walton College of Business. It researches development and use of information technology and houses the RFID Research Center.


Generally, no hyphen: infrared, infrastructure.

Ingredere ut Proficias Sapientia

This Latin phrase, which means "enter to grow in wisdom," is engraved in the steps at the eastern entrance to the Old Main Lawn and on the Pi Beta Phi Centennial Gate. Italicize the Latin phrase.

See also the Vertitate Duce Progredi entry.


Use periods and no space between initials for a person's name: H.L. Menken. This style is adopted to make sure that in typesetting the two letters appear on the same line of type.

See middle initials.


They are suffered, not sustained or received.

Inn at Carnall Hall

Built in 1906 as a women's residence hall, Carnall Hall was named for Ella Howison Carnall, among the first female professors at the university. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The building was extensively renovated in 2003 by private developers who operate a hotel called the Inn at Carnall Hall, a restaurant within called Ella's Restaurant, and a bar called the Lambeth Lounge. Both hotel and restaurant provide an experimental laboratory for students in the university's hospitality program.

In most instances, Carnall Hall is sufficient on second reference. Its building code is CARN.

Innovation Center

Built in 2003, the Innovation Center is at the Arkansas Research and Technology Park in south Fayetteville. It provides research and development for startup technology businesses. Its building code is INOV.


The Associated Press recommends against using this word to describe the introduction of data into a computer. Better to say: He entered data into the computer.


Inquiry is a journal of undergraduate research edited annually by the University of Arkansas Teaching Academy. Italicize its title.

insofar as

Two words.

Institute for Integrative and Innovative Research

The institute was established as a unit in 2020 through a $194.7 million grant from the Walton Family Charitable Support Foundation. The grant funds multiple projects to build the university’s cross-disciplinary research capability, expand the scope of discoveries and increase the speed that discoveries are transferred to the marketplace. Funding is also allocated to entrepreneurship education and a Bentonville campus of the institute.

On second reference, a mashup of an acronym with a number — I3R — is permissible, but it may be less confusing to readers to simply use institute on second reference. Likewise, turning I3R into I3R should be disuaded because the superscript number doesn't translate properly in many situations such as social media. Readers also understand superscript numbers to have a specific function, such as a chemical formula or for a footnote.

Construction on the Fayetteville campus of a building for the institute is anticipated, and it will very likely have the same name. Writers may need to differentiate between the two depending on context.

Institute of Food Science and Engineering

The institute comprises three technology centers — the Center for Food Processing and Engineering, the Center for Food Safety and Quality, and the Center for Human Nutrition — and assists the food industry by researching issues that affect productivity in the food-processing industry. The institute is based in the University of Arkansas System's Division of Agriculture.


Use lowercase.


See the assure, ensure, insure entry.

Integrated Student Information System

See the UAConnect entry.


Generally, no hyphen: interdisciplinary, interstate, interracial, intercontinental.

interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary

Although often used synonymously, the two words do not mean the same thing. A program that is multidisciplinary means that more than one academic field is involved. A program that is interdisciplinary means that the contributions of more than one academic field are meshed together for purposes of the program.

Interfraternity Council

This organization oversees rules for the traditionally white fraternities on campus.

Refer to the Greek entry.


When used with a proper title, it remains lowercase: The chancellor introduced interim Provost Mary Smith.

Intermodal Transit Facility

See the Union Station entry.

International Center for the Study of Early Asian and Middle Eastern Musics

The center, based in the department of music in the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences, was established in 2000 and coordinates the international Tang Music Project and is linked to the Ancient Asian Music Preservation Project of the Library of Congress.

international dateline

When the time is 12:01 a.m. Sunday west of the dateline, the time is 12:01 a.m. Saturday east of the dateline.


Although the Associated Press treated this as a proper noun for many years, the AP changed its guide in 2016 and now treats as a common noun, so lowercase it.

intersession, intercession

An intersession is a short break between normal university semesters. The University of Arkansas conducts two-week intersessions three times during the school year, one each before the fall semester, the spring semester and the summer sessions.

An intercession is the act of intervening on behalf of someone else.

Refer also to the semester and summer session entries.


Generally no hyphen: intramural, intranet.

intramural and recreational sports

See the entry on University Recreation.


Acceptable in all references for intelligence quotient.


A double negative. Do not use. Regardless is correct.


See the UAConnect entry.


it, its

Use this pronoun, rather than she or he, and the possessive, its, rather than hers or his, when referring to hurricanes, nations, ships, tropical storms and universities.


See information technology entry.


In this style guide, italics are used to show examples.

In the use of italics for media releases and publications, the University of Arkansas style varies from The Associated Press. The AP has no consistent way to transmit italicization to its subscribing media, so it has not used italics. University writers and editors are able to use italics consistently, so the university's style follows the Chicago Manual of Style regarding when to use italics in media releases and publications.

Use italics for:

  • Titles of books, journals, magazines and newspapers
  • Long poems published separately and collections of poetry
  • Works of art
  • Television series and movie titles
  • Plays, operas, oratorios and other long musical compositions
  • Law cases, such as Marbury v. Madison
  • Foreign phrases, such as nom de plume
  • Scientific names of plants and animals, such as Delphinium newtonianum.

Use quotes around titles of:

  • Articles or stories within larger compilations
  • Television episodes (either an individual show or the episode title of a TV series)
  • Shorter musical compositions or pieces from within a larger work
  • Shorter poems or poems published in a larger work

The Chicago Manual of Style does recommend using a consistent style if several longer works and shorter works are listed together. Make them all italic.

See also the composition titles and quotes entries.

it's, its

The contraction it's is short for it is or it has: It's up to you. It's been a long time. Without an apostrophe, its is the possessive form of the pronoun it: The team won its game.


Janelle Y. Hembree Alumni House

Built in 1982, the house was expanded and renovated in 1998. It is named for an alumna and benefactor of the university. It is home to the Arkansas Alumni Association and provides meeting space for alumni events. On second reference, Alumni House is sufficient. Its building code is ALUM.


The special vocabulary and idioms of a particular class or occupational group. Try to avoid the idioms particular to a specialized field. Writers should remember that general readers do not understand those distinctive meanings. If jargon is used, explain it.

See the colloquialisms, dialect, slang and vernacular entries.

J.B. Hunt Transport Services Inc. Center for Academic Excellence

Dedicated in 2007, this building is named for the long-haul, Lowell-based trucking company of the same name. For consistency and clarity, delete the comma between Services and Inc. that appears on the building. In formal references, use the full name, but J.B. Hunt Center is sufficient for most first references. Writers should be careful not to confuse it with Silas H. Hunt Hall. The building code for the J.B. Hunt Center is JBHT.

Jean Tyson Child Development Study Center

The child development study center on campus provides daycare for infants and pre-school for more than 140 children of university faculty, staff and students while also providing opportunities for university students in the School of Human Environmental Sciences to learn about child care. Avoid use of Tyson Center on second reference because of other similarly named facilities.

The center is named for Jean Tyson, matriarch of the Tyson family, who were benefactors of the project. Its building code is JTDC.

Jerry and Gene Jones Family Student-Athlete Success Center

The center, a 55,000-square-foot facility with an auditorium and computer lab, will provide more than 30 rooms for tutoring the university's student-athletes. Offices will include some academic advising and career support programs, according to UA. The cost of the project is about $23 million, paid in part through a significant gift from the Jones family.  On second reference, Jones Student-Athlete Success Center is sufficient. Its building code is JSAS.

Jim and Joyce Faulkner Performing Arts Center

The performing arts center was originally known as the Field House and later as the Men's Gymnasium. Built in 1937, the center's interior was significantly renovated in 2015 to create a space suitable for musical concerts and other performances. It was named for the Faulkners because of a significant gift in support of the $22.5 million renovation. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It will seat approximately 570 people. It was re-dedicated in fall 2015. Faulkner Performing Arts Center or Faulkner Center is sufficient on second reference.

job titles

Always lowercase: teacher, carpenter, professor, painter.

See the titles entry.

John A. White Engineering Hall

The hall, built in 1927, is named for former Chancellor John A. White. The hall's building code is ENGR. It is connected by skywalk to the Bell Engineering Center.

John Kirkpatrick Skeeles Poultry Health Laboratory

It is located at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center. Its building code is PODL. On second reference, Skeeles Poultry Health Lab is sufficient. Its building code is PODL.

John McDonnell Field

Built in 1974, the university's outdoor track and field arena is named for John McDonnell, the long-time former head track coach. The field underwent a major expansion and renovation in 2006 and seats 7,000 people. The track is a 400-meter oval with 100-meter straight-aways on the east and west sides. The field includes space for long and triple jumps; high jump and pole vault; and discus, shot put and javelin throw. McDonnell Field is sufficient on second reference. Its building code is TRAC.

See also the Frank O'Mara Track and Field Performance Center entry.

John W. Tyson Building

Dedicated in 1995, the building is named for John W. Tyson, founder of Tyson Foods Inc. It houses the department of poultry science and part of the Center of Excellence for Poultry Science. On second reference, Tyson Building is sufficient. Its building code is POSC.


Italicize the names of journals.

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The journal is the first student-edited legal journal in the country devoted to the study of food law and its impact on society. It began publishing biannually in July 2005. Its title should be italicized.

Journal of Islamic Law & Culture

The journal is student-edited and published biannually through cooperation of the School of Law and the university's King Fahd Center for Middle East and Islamic Studies. Its name should be italicized.

Jr., Sr., II, III

Abbreviate when used with the full name of someone. Do not set off by commas: Mike Smith Jr. or Bill Jones III. The notation II or 2nd may be used if it is the individual's preference. Note that II and 2nd are sometimes used for a nephew or grandson and are not necessarily the equivalent of junior.


See the Jr., Sr., II, III entry or the student standing entry.

Juris Doctor

See the academic degrees entry.

J. William Fulbright

A sculpture titled J. William Fulbright stands on the west side of Old Main. It was created by artist Greta Bader in 2001 and dedicated in 2002 with former President Bill Clinton speaking. Use italics when referring to the work of art.


Kelvin scale

Kelvin is a scale of temperature based on the Celsius scale, primarily used in science to record very high and low temperatures. In the Kelvin scale, zero indicates the total absence of heat (absolute zero). It is equal to minus 273.16 degrees Celsius and minus 459.67 degrees Fahrenheit. The freezing point of water is 273.16 degrees Kelvin and the boiling point is 373.16 degrees Kelvin. To convert from Celsius to Kelvin, add 273.16 to the Celsius temperature.

See the Celsius and Fahrenheit entries.

keynote address, keynote speaker

Use lowercase.

kickoff (n.), kick-off (adj.), kick off (v.)

Examples: The kickoff is at noon; The kick-off event is at noon; The event will kick off at noon.


A prefix denoting 1,000 units of a measure: kilograms, kilohertz, kilometer, kilowatts.

Kimpel Hall

Built in 1973, the hall is an academic building originally known as the Communications Building. It houses the departments of English, communication, theatre and world languages, the School of Journalism and Strategic Media, and the Sue Walk Burnett Student Media Center. It was named for Ben Drew Kimpel, a professor of English who died in 1983. Its building code is KIMP.


May be abbreviated on second reference in such constructions as K-12 education if the context is clear.

King Fahd Center for Middle East and Islamic Studies

Based in the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences, the center comprises noted specialists on the Middle East and the Islamic world across a variety of academic disciplines. The center maintains partnerships and affiliations with universities and research institutes in Morocco, Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Russia, Central Asia, and Israel. The center also provides outreach support to schools, media, government, and the public throughout Arkansas and the South-Central States region. On second reference, the King Fahd Center is sufficient.


A knot is a measure of speed equal to 1 nautical mile (6,076.10 feet) per hour. It is redundant to say knots per hour. To convert knots into approximate statute miles per hour, multiply knots by 1.15.

Always use figures: The solar boat reached a top speed of 35 knots but slowed to 7 knots when cornering.

KUAF Radio

The campus affiliate of National Public Radio is organizationally based in the School of Journalism and Strategic Media. It broadcasts three high-definition channels locally at 91.3 FM covering most of western Arkansas.

  • HD1 is its traditional broadcast mix of classical music and news shows on weekdays and a variety on weekends.
  • HD2 is mostly classical music with news at the top of the hour.
  • HD3 is nearly all news and talk shows.

Its offices, studios and music library are in the Lynn and Joel Carver Center for Public Radio, which opened on School Avenue in 2009.

See also the Lynn and Joel Carver Center for Public Radio.


Writers should be aware that the Greek transliteration kudos, meaning honor, praise or renown for an achievement, originally took a singular verb: Kudos is accorded the successful researcher. Today, however, it is commonly treated as a plural because it ends in an s, and the back-formed kudo has come to be treated as the singular. Using kudos in the objective can eliminate the subject-verb conflict: The successful researcher deserves kudos.


KXUA is the student radio station at the University of Arkansas. It was established in 2000 and broadcasts at 88.3 FM. Its studios are on the second floor of Kimpel Hall.

See student media.


laboratory, lab

Use laboratory on first reference: Altheimer Laboratory, the chemistry laboratory. On second reference or in a quote, lab is sufficient.

Lady Razorbacks

No longer used.

Refer to the Razorbacks entry.


Capitalize the proper names of languages and dialects: Cajun, English, Ozark, Persian, Yiddish.

Larry E. Coombes Memorial Auditorium

This auditorium is in the Plant Science Building, and it seats 114. The name was chosen by benefactors to honor Larry E. Coombes, an alumnus. Coombes Auditorium is sufficient on second reference.


Avoid the use of last in place of latest because of the ambiguity about whether most recent or final is meant.


Do not use it to describe someone's actions while they were alive.

  • WRONG: The late senator opposed the bill.
  • RIGHT: Before her death, the senator had opposed the bill.

Latino (m.), Latina (f.), Latinx (neutral)

Use LatinoLatina or Latinx for a person of Latin American heritage. The similar term Hispanic refers to someone from a Spanish-speaking country but is not the equivalent of Latin American, which takes in the Portuguese-speaking Brazil and the English-speaking Belize. Either term might be preferable for a specific story. If writing about the heritage of an individual, use what the individual prefers. Be more specific whenever possible: She was born in Bolivia, he is Brazilian. When referring to someone who has dual heritage or citizenship, use Latino American, Latina American or Latinx American, without hyphens.

The Latinx term is still relatively new and may require an explanation that it is a coinage to provide a non-gendered version. The non-gendered terms Latine and Latinu have also been suggested as alternatives and may be used if preferred by a subject.

Refer also to the ethnicity and race entry.

latitude, longitude

Latitude is designated by parallels as measured from the equator north and south to the poles. Longitude is designated by north-south meridians that intersect at the poles, including the prime meridian, which runs through Greenwich, England.

Use these forms to express degrees of latitude and longitude: Old Main stands at 36 degrees 4 minutes 7 seconds north latitude and 94 degrees 10 minutes 18 seconds west longitude; Fayetteville lies north of the 36th parallel north and well east of the 95th meridian west.


See the Old Main Lawn entry.


Capitalize legislative acts but not bills: the Freedom of Information Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the education bill.

Law School

See School of Law.


A generic term for all members of the bar. Use lowercase as a job description rather than as a formal title.

An attorney is someone legally appointed or empowered to act for another, usually, but not always, a lawyer. An attorney at law is a lawyer.

A barrister is an English lawyer who appears exclusively as a trial lawyer in higher courts. There is no American equivalent.

A counselor, in the legal sense, means a person who conducts a case in court, usually, but not always, a lawyer. A counselor at law is a lawyer. Counsel frequently refers collectively to a group of counselors.

A solicitor in England is a lawyer who performs legal services for the public in the lower courts. A solicitor in the United States is a lawyer employed by a governmental body.

Solicitor general is the formal title for a chief assistant officer to an attorney general or the chief law officer when there is no attorney general. Capitalize when used before a name.

lay, lie

The action verb is lay, and it takes a direct object: She lay the textbook on the table. Its past tense and past participle is laid: Yesterday, he laid blame on the defendant. Its present participle is laying: The mason is laying the sidewalk.

When lie refers to reclining on a horizontal plane, it does not take a direct object: The dog lies in the grass. The past tense is lay: He lay on the beach yesterday. The past participle is lain: She has lain down for a nap. The present participle is lying: The student is lying on the couch.

When lie means to make a false statement, the verb forms are lie, lied and lying.

lectern, podium, pulpit, rostrum

A speaker stands behind a lectern, on a podium or rostrum, or in the pulpit.


Capitalize only when part of the formal name of an endowed lectureship: Mary Smith, the 2020 Bumpers Lecturer in Animal Science.


Capitalize and use quotation marks around the titles of lectures: He will present a lecture titled "Drowning in Neoliberalism: The Origins and Lessons of Hurricane Katrina."

Leflar Law Center

Built in 1953, the center comprises Waterman Hall, which was named for the university's first law dean, Julian S. Waterman; the Norma Lea Beasley Entrance Hall; the Robert A. and Vivian Young Law Library; and the E.J. Ball Courtroom. The center is named for a longtime university professor and dean, Robert A. Leflar. Its building code is WATR.

left hand (n.), left-hand (adj.), left-handed (adj.), left-hander (n.)

Examples: The door is on the left hand; Make a left-hand turn; She is left-handed; The pitcher is a left-hander.


Capitalize when preceded by the state name: Arkansas Legislature. Retain capitalization when the state name is dropped but it still refers specifically to the state's legislature: The Legislature approved the resolution. The formal name of Arkansas' legislative body is General Assembly.

Leland Tollett Auditorium

This auditorium is in the John W. Tyson Poultry Science Building. It is named for a longtime Tyson Foods executive and benefactor of the university. On second reference, Tollett Auditorium is sufficient. It seats 172 people.


This word may be used as a reference to women who are attracted to the same sex. Do not use unless pertinent to the story.

Refer also to the gay and LGBTQ entries.


See the fewer, less entry.


No hyphen before this suffix: childless, tailless, waterless.

Lewis E. Epley Jr. Band Hall

Built in 1964 and expanded significantly in 2006, the band building is named for Lewis E. Epley Jr., an alumnus and former member of the University of Arkansas Board of Trustees. For consistency and clarity, delete the comma between Epley and Jr. that appears on the building. On second reference, Epley Band Hall is sufficient. Its building code is BAND.


The acronym LGBTQ-plus may be used on all references for the collective community of people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and other sexual orientations or allies. When writing about individuals, be more specific and use only when sexual orientation is pertinent to a story.

Refer also to the gay, cisgender, lesbian, straight and transgender entries.


See the University of Arkansas Libraries and Mullins Library entries.


The distance light travels in one year, which is about 5.88 trillion miles.


No hyphen unless the suffix would create a triple "l" or the main element is a proper noun: shell-like, European-like, businesslike.


Usually a hyphen when it means similar to: like-minded, like-natured. Usually no hyphen in words that have meanings of their own: likelihood, likewise, likeness.

like, as

Use like as a preposition to compare nouns and pronouns. It requires an object: Mike sees like a hawk. The conjunction as is the correct word to introduce clauses: Mike sees the stop sign as he should.

Linda Sue Shollmier Plaza

The quad between the business buildings is named to honor the wife of a benefactor. On second reference, Shollmier Plaza is sufficient.

Lindley and Kaneaster Hodges Reading Room

This reading room is in Mullins Library. It is named for alumni and benefactors. Kaneaster Hodges also served on the University of Arkansas Board of Trustees. On second reference, Hodges Reading Room is sufficient.

When linking from an online story to another web property, best practice in most cases is to embed the URL address into story text that describes where the link will take a reader or the action that will occur when a reader clicks on a link.

Short, simple URLs may also be used if the destination of the URL is understood well in context. In these instances, the full URL may be embedded into text that shows the link without additional syntax, such as the "http://" or suffixes such as "php" or "html."

When using a proper name of a web page, capitalize it like other proper names. If the title of a web page is a common word or phrase, such as application form or directory, lowercase use is usually better. Use italics and quotes as you would for other titles of works.

Some examples:


This is a trademarked brand of software produced by the company L-Soft, and it should be capitalized if used. Preference is to use the generic email discussion group.


See the figuratively, literally entry.

Lynn and Joel Carver Center for Public Radio

The Lynn and Joel Carver Center for Public Radio houses the studios, offices and music library of KUAF Radio, the university's public radio affiliate. It was built in 2009 at 9 S. School St. and named for benefactors of the radio station. On second reference, Carver Center is sufficient.

See also KUAF Radio.

Locke Memorial Garden

This garden is on the west side of Kimpel Hall and was dedicated to the memory of John Robert Locke, a professor of English who was killed in 2000.

login, logon, logoff (n.)

Two words when used as verbs.


See the latitude, longitude entry.

long term, long-term

Hyphenate as a compound modifier but two words otherwise.

long time (n.), longtime (adj.)

Examples: She has been gone a long time; He is a longtime friend.

Louis and Joy Ramsay Auditorium

This auditorium is in the Walton College of Business Building. On second reference, Ramsay Auditorium is sufficient. It seats 132 people.


Mack-Blackwell National Rural Transportation Study Center

The center provides research about rural transportation with support from the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Arkansas Highway and Transportation Department. It is based in the university's department of civil engineering.

magazine names

Italicize the names of magazines. Lowercase magazine unless it is part of the name: Harper's Magazine, Time magazine, Arkansas magazine, Research Frontiers magazine.

maiden names

See names.

Main Hill Media

Main Hill Media is a student advertising agency that sells advertising for the student media on campus and provides services for advertising clients. It is one of six student media overseen by the Office of Student Media in the Division of Student Affairs.

See student media.


See military titles.


The word major refers academically to a major program of undergraduate study. Lowercase: The food science major has two concentrations.

Refer to the list of programs offered at the University of Arkansas or the Catalog of Studies.

See also entries on combined majors, double majors, fields and second majors.

majority, plurality

Majority means more than half of an amount. Plurality means more than the next highest number: The Arkansas Poll showed that a majority of young Arkansans, 52 percent, favored Policy A. After opinions of all Arkansans were added, Policy A still had a plurality, with 48 percent in favor. Meanwhile, 32 percent of Arkansans favored the Policy C, and 20 percent favored Policy B.

Maple Hill Arboretum.

The Maple Hill Arboretum includes trees in the hollow to the west of the John W. Tyson Poultry Science Building. It is one of two arboreta on campus.

Maple Hill Residence Halls

These halls opened in 2007 and 2008, and they are named after the hill upon which they sit. The buildings are split into east, south and west halls. Maple Hill East has about 346 beds; Maple Hill South has about 357 beds; and Maple Hill West has about 376 beds. Each hall has its own building code: MHER, MHSR and MHWR.

marshal, Marshall, martial

A marshal refers to a law or military officer or is used as a verb meaning to arrange, as for battle. Marshall is a proper noun referring to the name of the islands in the equatorial Pacific. Martial is an adjective meaning warlike or inclined to war.

Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard

Formerly known as Sixth Street, Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard borders the south side of campus.

Martin Luther King Jr. Day

This state and federal holiday is celebrated on the third Monday in January and commemorates the birth of Martin Luther King Jr., who was born Jan. 15, 1929.


The Razorback is the official mascot of the University of Arkansas. Five costumed mascots are named: Big Red, Sue E., Pork Chop, Boss Hog and Ribby. The live Russian boar currently used as a mascot is named Tusk.

Refer also to the Razorbacks entry.

Master of Arts, Master of Science

The Associated Press accepts master's degree on any reference for either of these degrees. If the type of degree is pertinent to the story, be as specific as possible: Master of Science in physics.

Refer to the academic degrees entry.

matriculant, matriculate, matriculation

Matriculation is the process of enrolling in the university. A matriculant is someone who is enrolling.

McDonnell Field

Refer to John McDonnell Field.

McIlroy House

Acquired by the university in 1970, the McIlroy House is home to the University of Arkansas Press. It is named for the McIlroy family, which provided the initial acreage for establishment of the university in the 1870s. At least two other houses formerly on the campus were also associated with the McIlroy family. Its building code is MCHS.

McNalley House

This residential building on Maple Street was home to offices prior to being removed in 2017 for construction of a sorority chapter house.

Meadow Avenue Parking Facility

This parking garage, finished in 2012, provides 216 parking spaces at the northeast corner of Meadow Avenue and Razorback Road. On top of the parking facility, the Razorback football team has two practice fields.


Refer to the average, mean, median, norm entry.

Mechanical Engineering Building

Built in 1963, its building code is MEEG.


Use plural subject-verb agreement: The media are covering the event.


Refer to the average, mean, median, norm entry.


A prefix denoting 1 million units of a measure.

Memorial Hall

Built in 1940 as the first student union, the building was initially named in honor of the late university president, John C. Futrall. It is on the National Register of Historic Places. After construction of Futrall Residence Hall, the name was shortened to Memorial Hall. When a new student union was built, Memorial Hall became an academic building, and it houses the Department of Psychological Science and Air Force ROTC. Its building code is MEMH.

Men's Gymnasium

Refer to the Jim and Joyce Faulkner Performing Arts Center entry.

meteor, meteorite, meteoroid

A meteoroid is a small celestial object, often the remnant of a comet, that travels through space. A meteoroid becomes a meteor when it enters Earth's atmosphere. A meteor becomes a meteorite when it reaches Earth's surface.

Refer also the Paragould Meteorite.


The basic unit of length in the metric system. A meter is about 39.37 inches.

metric system

Use metric measures when they are pertinent to a story, but try to stick with one system of measure in a single story. If more than one system is needed for a particular story, explain why.

metric ton

Equivalent to approximately 2,204.62 pounds.

Refer also the ton entry.


A prefix denoting one-millionth of a unit. Follow the rules for use of prefixes.


No hyphen unless a capitalized word follows: mid-America, midsemester, midterm, midyear.

middle class, middle-class

The former is used when class is a noun and middle modifies it. The latter is used when both words are used together as a compound modifier. She is a member of the middle class. She has middle-class values.

middle initials

The Associated Press recommends, in general, using them when known to help avoid the chance that a reader will mistake similarly named individuals.

middle names

Use them only when a person is known publicly with a middle name or to avoid confusion with people of similar names.


Do not put 12 in front of it. It is part of the day that is ending, not the one that is beginning.

Refer to the time element entry.


Also known as a statute mile, it equals 5,280 feet. Always use figures for dimensions, formulas and speeds: 5 miles per hour, 7 miles per gallon, the farm is 6 miles square.

miles per gallon

The abbreviation mpg is acceptable on second reference.

miles per hour

The abbreviation mph is acceptable in all references.

military titles

Capitalize a military rank when used as a formal title before an individual's name. Spell out any title when it is used before a name in a direct quotation. The Associated Press recommends abbreviations for some of the titles. The Army and Air Force abbreviations are listed here since the university has both Army and Air Force ROTC units.

Rank   Usage before name
general   Gen.
lieutenant general   Lt. Gen.
major general   Maj. Gen.
brigadier general   Brig. Gen.
colonel   Col.
lieutenant colonel   Lt. Col.
major   Maj.
captain   Capt.
first lieutenant   1st Lt.
second lieutenant   2nd Lt.
chief warrant officer   Chief Warrant Officer
warrant officer   Warrant Officer
command sergeant major    Command Sgt. Maj.
sergeant major   Sgt. Maj.
first sergeant   1st Sgt.
master sergeant   Master Sgt.
sergeant first class   Sgt. 1st Class
staff sergeant   Staff Sgt.
sergeant   Sgt.
chief master sergeant   Chief Master Sgt.
senior master sergeant   Senior Master Sgt.
technical sergeant   Tech. Sgt.
corporal   Cpl.
specialist   Spc.
private first class   Pfc.
private   Pvt.
senior airman   Senior Airman
airman first class   Airman 1st Class
airman   Airman
airman basic   Airman

military units

Use Arabic figures and capitalize the key words when linked with the figures: 1st Infantry Division, 5th Battalion, 142nd Field Artillery Brigade, Detachment 030.


A prefix denoting one-thousandth of a unit of measure: millisecond, millileter, milligram.

millions, billions

Use figures with million or billion in all except casual uses: A million times no! But: The university raised more than $1 billion.

Don't go beyond two decimal points in most uses: 5.34 million readers, rather than 5,340,262 readers.

Don't drop the word million or billion in the first figure of a range: There were from $4 million to $6 million added. Not: $4 to $6 million, unless you really mean $4.

No hyphen is necessary to join the figures and the words, even in this construction: The university submitted a $335 million budget.


Generally, no hyphen: miniseries, minivan.


Lowercase: The Department of Mathematical Sciences offers a minor in statistics.


Not miniscule.

minus sign

Use a hyphen rather than a dash, but spell out if there is any danger of confusion. Spell out the word for temperatures below zero: minus 5 degrees or 10 below zero.


Refer to courtesy titles.


One word.


Spell out the names of months when they stand alone. Abbreviate Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec. when they are used with specific dates: The university suspended classes on Oct. 9, 1918, because of an influenza epidemic.

When a phrase lists only a month and year, spell out the month and don't separate by commas: Classes began in January 1872.

In tabular material, three-letter abbreviations may be used for all months.


The names of monuments are treated as proper names. The principal words should be capitalized. The following list gives the name of some monuments on campus and year of installation:

  • Bell Tower, Alumni House, 1999
  • Chi Omega Fountain, circa 1975
  • Delta Delta Delta Clock Tower, 1988
  • Fulbright Peace Fountain, 1998
  • Locke Memorial Sculpture Garden, 2004
  • Old Main Clock, 2006
  • POW-MIA Memorial, 2004
  • Spoofer's Stone, circa 1873-1875
  • Tau Beta Pi Key, 1925
  • Will Rogers Memorial, 1931
Refer also to sculpture, the titles of which are capitalized and italicized.



Refer to heavenly bodies.

more than

Refer to the over entry.

Morgan Hall

Built as part of the Northwest Quad in 2004, the northeast building of the quad was renamed Morgan Hall in honor of University Professor Gordon Morgan, one of the first two African American professors at the University of Arkansas. Morgan Hall is open to all students and has about 146 beds for students. Its building code is MGNR.


Capitalize when used before the name of a woman who heads a group of nuns.


Spell out in all uses, including the names of communities: Mount Sequoyah, Mount Nord, Mount Olive.


Capitalize as part of a proper name: Ozark Mountains, Boston Mountains.

movie titles

Italicize names of feature and documentary movies: The Sound of Dreams.

Mr., Mrs., Ms.

Refer also to courtesy titles.

Mullins Creek

This creek starts near Maple Hill, runs underground at Maple Street and re-emerges south of Leroy Pond Drive, continuing south until it joins with Town Branch, south of Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard.

Mullins Library

Built in 1968, the main research library at the University of Arkansas is named for David W. Mullins, a former president of the university. Aside from the main circulating collections, Mullins also includes the department of special collections. Its building code is MULN.

Refer also to University of Arkansas Libraries.


Generally, use no hyphen: multicolored, multidisciplinary, multilateral, multimillion.


Refer to the interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary entry.


Refer to the University Museum entry.

Music Building

Refer to the George and Boyce Billingsley Music Building.



On first reference, use the full name of a person or an organization as listed in this guide or the Associated Press Stylebook. In general, use only the last name of a person on second reference or a shorter name of an organization as listed in this guide. The Associated Press does allow use of the first name for people 15 or younger.

Use a person's name in the manner that an individual prefers to be known: Mary Smith Jones, Mary Smith-Jones, Mary (Smith) Jones. For alumni, the latter shows that Smith was part of the legal name that the student had while in college. Occasionally, the use of nee, which means born, is still used: Mary Jones, nee Smith.

Suffixes to names such as Sr., Jr., II or III are not set off by commas.

Avoid use of the phrase "maiden name" when possible. Use "former name" or "birth name" when applicable.

Refer to the courtesy titles and nicknames entries.


A prefix denoting one-billionth of a unit but also used to mean something very small. Follow the rules for use of prefixes. Some examples: nanoscale, nanosecond, nanogram, nanometer, nanotechnology.

Nanoscale Material Science and Engineering Building

The Nanoscale Material Science and Engineering Building is at 731 W. Dickson St. The first phase of the building was finished in 2011 and is expected to be dedicated in September. Its building code is NANO.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

The acronym NASA is acceptable in all references.

National Agricultural Law Center

Created by Congress in 1987, the center is based at the University of Arkansas. It is the nation's leading provider of information and research about agricultural and food law. It is administered by the university's School of Law.

National Center for Reliable Electric Power Transmission

The center provides research in the areas of power electronic design and modeling, control algorithms for power electronics, power electronics packaging power electronics test, and mixed-signal integrated circuit design for the drive and control of power electronic interfaces. It is based in the College of Engineering.

National Collegiate Athletic Association

The abbreviation NCAA is sufficient in all references. The University of Arkansas is a member of the association.

National Institutes of Health

On second reference, NIH is sufficient as a modifier: the NIH grant.

National Office for Research, Measurement and Evaluation Systems

The office is a research and service unit in the College of Education and Health Professions, and it analyzes and disseminates data to facilitate school improvement and reform.

National Panhellenic Council

This council oversees rules for the traditionally white sororities on campus.

Refer also to the Greek entry.

National Pan-Hellenic Council

This council oversees rules for the traditionally black fraternities and sororities on campus.

Refer also to the Greek entry.

National Pan-Hellenic Council Gardens

This garden, located south of the Administration Building and overlooking Razorback Stadium, serves as a monument, commemorating the heritage of the National Pan-Hellenic Council and the historically Black fraternities and sororities at the U of A. It was dedicate during Homecoming 2021.

National Register of Historic Places

Compiled by the U.S. Department of Interior, the register maintains architectural and cultural information about places deemed to be historic. The state of Arkansas maintains a similar list for buildings that do not meet the criteria of the national register but still have historic merit. Eleven buildings on the University of Arkansas campus are on the national register:

  • Agriculture Building
  • Chemistry Building
  • Chi Omega Chapter House
  • Chi Omega Greek Theatre
  • Human Environmental Sciences Building (formerly called the Home Economics Building)
  • Inn at Carnall Hall (formerly called Carnall Hall)
  • Memorial Hall
  • Old Main
  • Ozark Hall
  • Gearhart Hall (formerly called Ozark Hall)
  • University Museum (formerly called the Fieldhoue and the Men's Gymnasium)
  • Vol Walker Hall

The university's core campus, bounded by Arkansas and Garland avenues on the east and west and by Dickson and Maple streets on the south and north, is also designated on the National Register as a historic district.

Refer also to the historic buildings entry.

National Science Foundation

On second reference, NSF is sufficient as a modifier: the NSF grant.


Capitalize the proper names of nationalities and peoples associated with a region, nation or continent: African, American, Asian, Cajun, Cherokee, Chinese, French Canadian, Japanese, Lithuanian, Midwesterner, Northwest Arkansans, Ozarkian, Quapaw.

Refer also to the ethnicity and race entry.

native, Native

The Native American Journalists Association cautions against using Native by itself to refer to an individual or specific tribe. Its use as a modifier to describe styles, such as Native art or Native music, is allowed, but it's still better to be more specific when a tribe is known.

When used to refer to someone generically as being born in a particular city, state or nation, use lowercase: He is a native of New Jersey.

Refer also to the American Indian, Native American entry.

Native American

Refer to the American Indian, Native American entry.


Sufficient on all references for the National Collegiate Athletic Association, of which the University of Arkansas is a member.

neither ... nor

Refer to the either ... or, neither ... nor entry.


Italicize newspaper names.

Refer also to the entry for Arkansas Traveler, the student newspaper.


Use a nickname in place of a person's given name when it is the way the individual prefers to be known: Jimmy Carter. When a nickname is inserted into the full name of an individual, put it in quotes: William "Bill" Jones.

See the names entry.

Nolan Richardson Court

The basketball court at Bud Walton Arena is named the Nolan Richardson Court in honor of the former men's head basketball coach, Nolan Richardson III, who led the team to its first national championship in 1994.


Most words using the prefix nonare spelled solid unless the word is a proper name: noncredit, nondegree-seeking student, nondiscrimination, nonregistered, nonprofit, but non-American. A few words read awkwardly and should be hyphenated: non-nuclear.


When used to mean no two or no amount, the more common usage, use a plural verb and pronoun: None of the students are attending. When used to mean not one, it takes a singular verb and pronoun: None of the books is the one he read.


Do not put 12 in front of it.

Refer also to the midnight and time element entries.

no one

Two words.


Refer to the average, mean, median, norm entry.

north tower

Use lowercase in reference to the two towers of Old Main. The north tower is the bell tower. Today, it holds computer-operated chimes. The bell originally in the tower is on display on the fourth floor of Old Main.

Northwest Arkansas

When writing about this area as an identifiable region, capitalize Northwest Arkansas. When using northwest as a simple direction, leave northwest lowercase.

Refer to the directions and regions entry.

NorthWest Arkansas Community College

Established in 1989, the community college is based in Benton County but operates two centers in Washington County as well: a technology center in Fayetteville and a satellite classroom branch in Springdale.

Northwest Arkansas Writing Project

Established in 1997, the project is based in the department of curriculum and instruction in the College of Education and Health Professions. It prepares public school teachers to be creative and effective in their classroom writing programs and includes Kidswrite sessions and summer camps for children.

Northwest Quad

Built in 2004, this residential complex comprises four residential areas with a central dining hall. The dining hall and Building A were renamed in 2012. The dining hall was renamed Fulbright Dining Hall in honor of Roberta Waugh Fulbright, and Building A was renamed Gatewood Hall in honor of Willard B. Gatewood, a former chancellor. In 2015, Building D was renamed in honor of Arthur M. Harding, a former president of the university. In 2019, the two remaining buildings were renamed Morgan Hall and Clark Hall in honor of the first two African American professors at the university, Gordon Morgan and Margaret Clark.

Collectively, the four buildings may continue to be referred to as the Northwest Quad. If writing about an individual hall, use the hall name as well as a reference to the Northwest Quad until the names become more commonplace: A living-learning community has been established at Morgan Hall, part of the Northwest Quad.

Their building codes are GTWR, MGNR, CLKR and HRDR.


Follow the guidelines of the Associated Press Stylebook for the use of numerals, including the many exceptions to the exceptions.

In general, spell out numbers zero through nine except for ages, credit hours, dates, dimensions, percentages, measures, room numbers and weights, which use figures unless the number starts a sentence.

Also always use figures for 10 and above, unless the number starts a sentence. Spell out all numbers that start a sentence, unless it's a year: 1958 was a good year.

Spell out fractions less than one and hyphenate: two-thirds or five-sixteenths. Use figures with whole numbers and fractions: 2 2/3.

Spell out casual uses such as A thousand times no!

For names of organizations, use numerals in accord with the organization's practice: 3M, Twentieth Century Fund, the Big Ten.


When necessary to establish a person's credentials, spell out the certification: Joe Smith, a registered nurse, or Mary Jones, a licensed practical nurse. Use of the abbreviations R.N. and L.P.N. is acceptable when a list of people and their professional credentials is necessary.


Oak Ridge Associated Universities

Since 1948, the university has been a member of the Oak Ridge Associated Universities, a consortium of universities and colleges that helps students and faculty gain access to federal research facilities, informs members of opportunities for fellowships and research appointments, and organizes research alliances. The consortium is based at Oak Ridge, Tenn., through a contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Oak Ridge Trail

Built in 2011, this multipurpose pedestrian and bicycle trail connects the University of Arkansas campus with Fayetteville's network of trails, which includes connection to the Razorback Greenway, a 36-mile trail that runs from southern Fayetteville north through Springdale, Lowell, Rogers, Bentonville, past the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, and ending at Bella Vista.

occupational titles

Always lowercase: lawyer Mary Smith, architect Mike Jones.

See also academic titles and titles.


Hyphenate if not listed as a solid word in Webster's: offstage, offset, offshore, but off-color and off-white.


Generally, no hyphen when added as an affix: cutoff, liftoff, standoff, but send-off. Consult Webster's for correct spelling.

off campus, off-campus

Hyphenate when it is used as a modifier; no hyphen otherwise: His apartment is off campus; He is an off-campus student.


In an exception to Associated Press style, capitalize proper names of campus offices: the Office of University Development, the Registrar's Office, the Office of University Relations, the Attorney General's Office.

The Associated Press also capitalizes office when it is part of an agency's formal name: Office of Management and Budget.

See also the departments entry and individual entries for campus offices.

Office for Education Policy

The office is a research and service unit in the College of Education and Health Professions, and it seeks to help Arkansas' educational leaders and lawmakers bridge the gap between research and practice by providing them with newsletters, policy briefs, Web-based resources and consultation about current educational policy issues.

Office for Studies on Aging

The office is a research and service unit in the College of Education and Health Professions, and it provides a focus for multidisciplinary initiatives regarding aging.

Office for Sustainability

The university's Office for Sustainability facilitates and coordinates efforts on campus to make the university's operations and practices more sustainable. The office also coordinates research initiatives to solve problems related sustainability.

See also the Sustainability Consortium and Sustainability House entries.

Office of University Relations

Part of the Division of Advancement, staff members of the office provide public relations for the university, including media relations, science and research communications, production of research and alumni publications, photography and video, Web development, campus news and crisis communications.

The office is located in Davis Hall.


One word for computer use. An exception to the Webster's spelling.

OK, OK'd, OK'ing, OKs

Do not use okay.

Old Main

Built during the 1870s and finished by 1875, the oldest building still standing on campus was officially named University Hall in 1895. Over the decades, though, the more popular name proved to be Old Main, and the university's Board of Trustees officially changed the name to Old Main when the building was rededicated in 1991 after a major renovation.

It is home to offices of the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences as well as classrooms, the Old Main Clock Room and several academic departments. Old Main is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Its building code is MAIN.

Old Main Arboretum

The Old Main Arboretum includes trees surrounding Old Main and across the front lawn of the campus. It is one of two arboreta on campus.

Old Main Lawn

The large expanse of grass and trees east and southeast of Old Main is also sometimes referred to as the front lawn, which is acceptable in quotes.


Generally, on is unnecessary before a date or day of the week: Classes start Aug. 20. The lecture is Saturday. Use on to avoid an awkward juxtaposition of a date and a proper name: She told Smith on Monday the class was canceled. Also use on to avoid suggestion that a date is the object of a transitive verb: The change eliminated on Monday the use of parking stickers.

on campus, on-campus

Hyphenated when used as a modifier. No hyphen otherwise: He lives on campus; On-campus housing is less expensive.

online, on-line

Per Associated Press style, use solid when referring to computer use over networks. Hyphenate otherwise. The interntet server is online. The auto plant came on-line.

on the Hill

Because of the university's hilltop location, the colloquial expression "on the Hill" is sometimes used to mean the university campus. Capitalize "Hill" when using the phrase. UATV used to produce a news magazine show of the same name. Capitalize and italicize it: On the Hill.

opinion polls

See the polls and surveys entry.

Orient, Oriental

Do not use these terms when referring to East Asian nations or their peoples. Use Asian or East Asian or be more specific: The student is from Vietnam.

Refer also to the Asian American entry.


Lowercase when referring the period when new students learn about campus before starting their first courses.

organizations and institutions

Capitalize the full names of organizations and institutions: the Biology Graduate Student Association; the Math Club; the University of Arkansas; Upward Bound; the Walton Arts Center.

When an organization's name is commonly flip-flopped, retain capital letters: College of Engineering, Engineering College; School of Law, Law School.


Usually no hyphen: outside, outscore.


Follow Webster's New World.

over, more than

Traditionally, over refers to a spatial relationship: The airplane is over the stadium. Use more than when writing with numbers and rankings: She scored 5 points more than the average. The fee is more than $3.


Follow Webster's New World.


Usually no hyphen.

Ozark, Ozarks

Use Ozark as a modifier and Ozarks as a noun: He studies Ozark folklore; The University of Arkansas is in the Ozarks. Treat Ozarks as a plural noun.

Technically speaking, the Ozarks are heavily eroded plateaus, although people refer to the region as the Ozark Mountains. The Ozarks comprise four distinct geological regions: the Boston Mountains in Arkansas; the Springfield Plateau and the Salem Plateau, which cross the state line into Missouri; and the St. Francois Mountains in eastern Missouri. The Ozarks also extend slightly into eastern Oklahoma, the southeast corner of Kansas and a small part of southwestern Illinois.

Geographers usually refer to the region as the Ozark Plateau, while geologists refer to it as the Ozark Uplift. Either term might be preferable to the Ozarks in a given context.

Ozark Avenue

This street was renamed McIlroy Avenue in 2006.

Ozark Hall

See G. David Gearhart Hall.


page numbers

When referred to in text, capitalize page when used with a figure. When a letter is appended to the figure, capitalize it but do not hyphenate: Page 1, Page 23, Page 20A.


See composition titles.

palate, palette, pallet

Palate is the roof of the mouth. Palette is an artist's paint board. A pallet is a bed.


Usually hyphenated and capitalized when used with a proper noun but solid otherwise: Pan-American, Pan-Asiatic.


Capitalize and solid for most uses, although the National Pan-Hellenic Council hyphenates its name.

Refer also to the Greek, National Panhellenic Council and National Pan-Hellenic Council entries.

Paragould Meteorite

The third largest meteorite recovered in North America, the Paragould Meteorite is on display at the Center for Space and Planetary Sciences. It is on loan from the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. The meteor fell at 4:08 a.m. on Feb. 17, 1930, southwest of Finch, Arkansas, near Paragould. The impact threw soil up to 160 feet away and created an 8-foot-deep hole. Initially installed at Mullins Library in 2003, the meteorite was moved to the space center in 2008. It weighs 816 pounds.

Refer also to the meteor, meteorite, meteoroid entry.


Generally try to avoid the use of parentheses in media releases because they jar the reader's comprehension. The Associated Press uses parentheses within quotes to show clarifying material added by a writer.

For punctuation with parentheses, place a period outside of parentheses if the material inside is not a full sentence (such as this fragment). When a phrase inside parentheses (this is one example) is a complete sentence but is dependent on surrounding material, do not capitalize the first word or end with a period. (An independent parenthetical sentence such as this takes a period before the closing parenthesis.)

See also the brackets entry.

parking lots and facilities

When referring to a specific parking lot on campus, capitalize and use the figure: Parking is available in Lot 57 and Lot 3.

Use parking facility rather than parking deck or parking garage. The campus has four parking facilities.

Refer also to the entries on the Garland Center, the Harmon Avenue Parking Facility, the Meadow Avenue Parking Facility and Stadium Drive Parking Facility and Transit and Parking for more information.

partial quotes

See quotation marks in the punctuation entry.

part time, part-time

Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier: He studies part time. He is a part-time student.

Pat Walker Health Center

Built in 2004, the center provides health and medical services for the university community. It is named for a longtime benefactor of the university. On second reference, health center is sufficient. Its building code is HLTH.

Pauline Whitaker Animal Science Center

The center is located at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center. It includes an indoor arena with seating for 750, classrooms, conference room and kitchen. It is named for its benefactor, and its building code is WHIT.


The university has several pavilions. See individual entries for more information on each pavilion:

  • Barton Pavilion
  • Dorothy E. King Equine Pavilion
  • Duncan Avenue Apartments Pavilion
  • Holding Pen Pavilion
  • Walker Pavilion
See also gardens.

Peabody Hall

Built in 1913, it was the first building on campus to be financed through private funds, in this case from the George Peabody Fund. For many years, the university training school held classes in the building. It is home to the department of curriculum and instruction. Its building code is PEAH.

people of color, racial minority

When describing broad racial populations in the United States, the use of people of color and racial minority or racial minorities is generally acceptable in appropriate contexts. Either phrase can pose concerns, though, with the term minority implying that numerical quantity is a substitute for racial equity.  The term people of color is very broad, essentially everyone who is not white, and can homogenize racial groups despite very different lived and historical experiences. Whenever possible, be more specific: The Latinx students on campus make up 7% of the student body; Black alumni organized a vigil; or The faculty researchers are members of the Cherokee Nation.

Writers should also be aware that neither term fully covers the sovereign status of Native American nations and tribes.

Avoid the use of the acronyms POC, for people of color, or BIPOC, for Black, Indigenous and people of color, both of which are still relatively new usages and not recognized by most readers yet. Use the spelled out phrases.

Refer also to the ethnicity and race entry.


Spell out as one word except in tabular material. A percentage symbol is allowed in that case. Always use figures: Enrollment increased 7 percent.


Italicize the names of periodicals such as magazines and journals.


Declarative sentences should end with a period: The class starts soon.

End mildly imperative sentences with a period: Shut the door.

Use an exclamation point if greater emphasis is desired: Be careful!

A period is preferable to a question mark when a rhetorical question is more of a statement than a question: Why don't we go.

Use a period at the end of an indirect question: She asked when the class starts.

Use periods for abbreviations but not for acronyms.

Use periods after initials: John A. White, T.S. Eliot (To prevent initials from splitting over two lines of type, don't use a space in between the two initials.) Periods are not needed for names that are reduced to only initials, such as JFK or LBJ.

Use three periods for an ellipsis.

Use a single space after a period at the end of a sentence.

See also the abbreviations and acronyms and ellipsis entries.

personal pronouns

Personal pronouns such as I, he, she and they and their permutations are used in place of a person's name. Writers should be cautious about using personal pronouns when two or more people are mentioned in a sentence or paragraph. Can the reader discern which person the personal pronoun is referencing? If not, repeating a person’s name is preferred.

Although the personal pronouns for people have traditionally been gendered, the recent rise of non-gendered versions of personal pronouns has broadened the number of personal pronouns to which a subject of a story might prefer as a reference. The most common might be the use of they, them and their as singular pronouns. Writers may use non-gendered pronouns at the request of a subject. Because they are new usages, though, an editor's note at the beginning or a narrative explanation within the story about the subject's preference will help alleviate any confusion on the part of readers until the usages gain greater currency: Mary Smith, who prefers the non-gendered pronoun they, has been an advocate within the LGBTQ-plus community.

Other non-gendered personal pronouns have been proposed. Here are a few that have gained some traction:

Subject   Object   Possessive
he/she   him/her   his/her   his/hers   himself/herself
zie   zim   zir   zis   zieself
sie   sie   hir   hirs   herself
ey   em   eir   eirs   eirself
ve   ver   vis   vers   verself
tey   ter   tem   ters   terself
e   em   eir   eirs   emself
See also the genderhe, him, his, she, her, hers and they, them, their entries.

pH balance

The pH is chemistry shorthand for explaining the concentration of hydrogen ions in a given material. If using this phrase, explain that it is a measure of acidity and alkalinity.


The Associated Press prefers to say a person holds a doctoral degree rather than use the abbreviation, although it is allowed in lists of people with degrees or in tabular material. The abbreviation stands for the Latin Philosophaie Doctor, or the English Doctor of Philosophy.

See the academic degrees and doctor entries.

phone numbers

See telephone numbers.

Physical Plant

Built in 1971, the Physical Plant houses the Department of Facilities Management and many of its shops. Its building code is PHPL.

Physics Building

Built in 1952, the building was renovated in 1994. Its building code is PHYS.

Pi Beta Phi Centennial Gate

Members of Pi Beta Phi, in honor of their chapter's 100-year anniversary as a sorority on the University of Arkansas campus, raised private funds in 2010 to build a ceremonial gate at the entrance to campus where the former Campus Drive intersects Maple Avenue. Construction occurred in 2011 and the Pi Beta Phi Centennial Gate was dedicated in 2012. On second reference, Pi Phi Gate is sufficient.


A prefix denoting one-trillionth of a unit.


Capitalize the proper names of planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus. (Pluto was redefined as a dwarf planet in 2006.) Also capitalize nouns and adjectives derived from planet names: Saturnian, Martian, Venusian.

See also earth and heavenly bodies.


Generally, lowercase the names of plants, but capitalize proper names or adjectives that occur in a name: oak, Douglas fir.

If the scientific name is used, capitalize the first word, lowercase the second and italicize the name: Juniperus virginiana.

Plant Sciences Building

Built in 1978, the building is attached to the Agriculture Building by a skywalk. Its building code is PTSC.

play titles

See composition titles.


See majority, plurality.


Follow these guidelines for forming plurals: For most words, add s: students, teachers.

For words ending in CH, S, SH, SS, X and Z, add es: classes, churches.

For words ending in IS, change is to es: thesis, theses; parenthesis, parentheses.

For words ending in Y preceded by a consonant or qu, change the y to i and add es: army, armies; solliloquy, solliloquies.

For other words ending in Y, add an s: turkey, turkeys; donkey, donkeys.

For words ending in O preceded by a consonant, usually add es: buffalo, buffaloes; echo, echoes. There are exceptions, though, such as pianos. Consult a dictionary or the Associated Press Stylebook for exceptions.

For words ending in F, generally, change the f to v and add es: leaf, leaves; shelf, shelves. One exception is roof, roofs.

For Latin words ending in a, change the a to ae: alumna, alumnae; emerita, emeritae. There are a few exceptions, such as formula, formulas.

For Latin words ending in us, change us to i: alumnus, alumni; emeritus, emeriti.

For many Latin words ending in um, add an s: memorandum, memorandums; stadium, stadiums. Among those that still take the Latin ending, change the um to a: addendum, addenda; curriculum, curricula; medium, media.

Use the plural that Webster's New World lists as most common for a particular sense of the word.

Other individual words are changed in form: child, children; man, men; woman, women; mouse, mice; etc.

And some words are written the same in singular and plural: corps, deer, sheep, etc. Readers determine sense based on the verb.

Some words are plural in form but have singular meaning and take a singular verb: measles, mumps, news. Others take plural verbs: scissors.

For most proper names ending in s or z, add es: Joneses, Gonzalezes. For proper names ending in y, add an s: Kennedys. For other names, add an s.

For figures, add an s: the decade of the 1960s, flying two 747s, a low in the 20s.

To pluralize a single letter, add 's: A's, k's. For multiple capital letters, add an s: ABCs, IOUs.

See also collective nouns and possessives.


See also time element.


See the lectern, podium, pulpit, rostrum entry.


Capitalize the first word in a line of verse unless the poet has used lowercase for effect. Do not capitalize the first word on an indented line that was created because the original line was too long to fit on the medium.

When excerpting verse for a narrative work, use a slash with spaces on either side to indicate the end of a line of verse: As Keats wrote: "Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard / Are sweeter: therefore, ye soft pipes, play on."

See composition titles.


Do not abbreviate. For geographic features, capitalize when part of a proper name: Point Barrow, Point Remove.

In typography, a point is 1/72 of an inch or 1/12 of a pica.

police department

The Associated Press says to capitalize the names of police departments unless they are known by another name: the University of Arkansas Police Department.

police titles

In general, capitalize them when used before a person's name and lowercase otherwise.

See military titles and titles.

polls and surveys

The Associated Press recommends that stories based on public opinion polls and surveys should include some basic information: name of the polling organization, number of people surveyed, how they were selected, the manner in which the survey was conducted (by phone, by interntet, by mail), dates when the poll was conducted, the sampling error, and questions asked.

See the Arkansas Poll entry.

Pomfret Hall

Built in 1968 as the university's first co-educational residence hall, it was named for James Pomfret, a university vice president for business who died in 1967 and had been with the university for nearly 40 years. The A wing comprises a common area and dining hall. The B wing is for first-year students with upperclass students in the C and D wings.

The hall has about 803 beds available to students. Its building code is POMF.


A pompom is the large ball of crepe paper or plastic streamers waved by cheerleaders. The university spirit squads shorten the word to "pom" to refer to its two pompom squads: Pom Red and Pom White.

See also spirit squads.

pore, pour

As a verb, pore means to gaze intently or steadily: She pored over her textbooks. The verb pour means to flow in a continuous stream: The rain poured. He poured the coffee.

port, starboard

Nautical terms for left and right, respectively, when facing the bow, or front, of a boat. Use left or right unless in a quote.


The Associated Press uses the following guidelines for creating possessives.

For singular common nouns and plural nouns not ending in s, add 's: the school's needs, the student's book, the horse's feed.

For singular common nouns ending in s, also use 's unless the following word also begins with an s, which would create a triple sibilant: the witness's answer, the witness' story.

For plural nouns ending in s and nouns plural in meaning but singular in form, add only an apostrophe: the classes' meeting rooms, mathematics' rules.

For proper names ending in s, add only an apostrophe: the Jones' house, Descartes' theories, Arkansas' budget. Writers should be aware that the Arkansas legislature has passed a resolution in favor of writing the possessive of Arkansas as Arkansas's, but the Associated Press does not.

Pronouns have separate forms for possessive, and none use an apostrophe: mine, ours, your, yours, his, hers, its, theirs, whose.

For compound words, use the rules above to add an apostrophe or 's to the word closest to the object possessed: the major general's order, the major generals' orders; the attorney general's lawsuit, the attorneys general's lawsuit.

Use a possessive form after only the last word in a series of owners if ownership is joint: Bill and Mary's home. Lisa and Tony's vacation; or after each owner's name if ownership is individual: Paul's and Carla's vehicles.

Try to avoid double possessives: WRONG: He is a friend of the college's.

Try to avoid creating possessive form for inanimate objects.


Usually joined without a hyphen unless attached to a proper name: postbaccalaureate, postgraduate, post-Napoleonic.

post office

Lowercase. The formal name is the U.S. Postal Service. A post office is operated on the first floor of the Arkansas Union.

Poultry Science Center

See the Center of Excellence for Poultry Science.


In weight, a pound is equal to 16 ounces. The metric equivalent is about 454 grams. In currency, the pound is the basic unit of English money.


See the pore, pour entry.


The rules in prefixes apply, although the Associate Press Stylebook recognizes the following spellings as exceptions to Webster's New World: pre-election, pre-eminent, pre-empt, pre-establish, pre-exist. In general, no hyphen necessary.

predominant, predominantly

Use these preferred adjectival and adverbial spellings over predominate or predominately, except that predominate is the verb form.


When adding a prefix, the spelling of the root word rarely changes. Generally no hyphen is necessary when using a prefix with a word that starts in a consonant. Three more rules are fairly constant:

  • Except for cooperate and coordinate, use a hyphen when a prefix ends in a vowel and the root word that follows begins with the same vowel: de-emphasize, re-enter.
  • Use a hyphen if the word that follows is capitalized: non-European, pre-Columbian.
  • Use a hyphen to join doubled prefixes: sub-subparagraph.
See also suffixes.


The president is the chief administrative officer of the University of Arkansas System. Prior to 1981, the president also served as the top administrative officer of the Fayetteville campus. In 1981, the position of chancellor was created for that purpose.

Year   President
1871-1873   Noah P. Gates
1873-1875   Albert W. Bishop
1875-1877   Noah P. Gates
1877-1884   Daniel H. Hill
1884-1887   George M. Edgar
1887-1894   Edward H. Murfee
1894-1902   John L. Buchanan
1902-1905   Henry S. Hartzog
1905-1912   John N. Tillman
1913-1939   John C. Futrall
1939-1941   J. William Fulbright
1941-1947   Arthur M. Harding
1947-1951   Lewis Webster Jones
1952-1959   John Tyler Caldwell
1960-1974   David Wiley Mullins
1974-1980   Charles E. Bishop
1980-1984   James E. Martin
1984-1990   Ray Thornton
1990-2010   B. Alan Sugg
2011-present   Donald Bobbitt

There were also two acting presidents, John Hugh Reynolds in 1912-13 and Storm Whaley in 1959-60.

See also the chancellor entry.


Not preventative.

Formerly called Printing Services, use the full name of this unit on first reference. PMC Solutions is acceptable on second reference. Use hyphens in the name. The building in which Print-Mail-Copy Solutions is based is still called the Printing Services Building.


Use a hyphen when joining this prefix to words to denote support: pro-business, pro-labor. No hyphen in other senses: proactive, profile, pronoun.

professor and professorships

Lowercase: professor Michelle Smith or Michelle Smith, professor of sociology. Similarly, lowercase most professorial titles: associate professor Barbara Jones or adjunct professor Bill Smith. Preferred usage is in the appositive: Barbara Jones, an associate professor of accounting.

Two professorial ranks at the University of Arkansas can create ambiguity if used lowercase, so treat them like named titles and capitalize them: University Professor and Distinguished Professor. Preferred use for these titles: Gordon Morgan, who holds the rank of University Professor. Endowed professorships should be treated similarly: Mary Smith, who holds the Endowed Professorship in Accounting. An endowed title does not affect the professorial rank that a professor has achieved.

The professorial ranking:

  • Distinguished Professor
  • University Professor
  • professor (sometimes referred to as full professor)
  • associate professor
  • assistant professor

Do not abbreviate professor.

See also academic titles.

program of study

Most programs of study at the University of Arkansas are contained within an academic department of the same name: The history programs are in the history department. Some programs of study, however, are based in a department with a similar field of study. The graduate program in public administration, for instance, is housed in the department of political science.

Some programs borrow expertise from a variety of departments: The program in African and African American studies draws coursework from anthropology, history, music and sociology, among others.

Often, the phrases program of study and field of study are used interchangeably, but writers should be aware of the difference between the two. A field of study is the overarching subject being studied: psychology, for instance. Within the psychology field, though, the university has three programs of study leading to specific degrees: a bachelor's program, a master's program and a doctoral program.

Lowercase academic programs.

See also the majors and field of study entries.

Program to Advance Science Education

Established in 2006 in the College of Education and Health Professions, this program is dedicated to enhancing science instruction in the nation's education infrastructure through basic research, the preparation of science teachers for school service and the development of science education leaders who can impact science teaching in schools and as professors in colleges and university settings.


See the personal pronouns entry.

prove (v.), proved, proving; proven (adj.)

Use proven only as an adjective: a proven theory.


The provost is the chief academic administrator at the University of Arkansas and also holds the title of vice chancellor for academic affairs. Capitalize when used as a formal title before someone's name: Provost Sharon Gaber.

See also the academic titles and titles entries.

Pryor Center

See the David and Barbara Pryor Center for Arkansas Oral and Visual History.


Good punctuation should direct a reader the way that a good street sign guides a tourist. Bad punctuation can make reading miserable, leaving the reader lost at the loo when he wanted the Louvre.

The space needed to cover all punctuation guidelines exceeds the space available here. In general, most guides agree that punctuation should either help clarity or not be used. Similarly, punctuation cannot save badly written sentences. Starting over with a new sentence is sometimes the best way to improve a sentence. Consult The Elements of Style by E.B. White and William Strunk Jr. for more detailed advice.

See individual entries on apostrophe, brackets, colon, comma, dash, ellipsis, exclamation point, hyphen, parentheses, periods, question mark, quotation marks, semicolon and slash.


Quality Writing Center

The center is located in Kimpel Hall and provides writing and research consultation for students, faculty and staff. The staff members do not edit or proofread written materials but do provide advice about writing and answer questions about the techniques of writing.

question mark

Use a question mark at the end of a direct question: Who found the key?

Use a question mark at the end of an interpolated question: You told me - Did I hear you right? - that you went to class.

Placement inside or outside of quotation marks depends on meaning: Who wrote "The Road Not Taken"? But: She asked, "Who is writing?" Similarly: "Who is writing?" she asked.


Two n's.

See also the polls and surveys entry.

quotation marks

Use quotation marks to surround exact words of a speaker or writer in a story, regardless of whether the quoted material forms a full sentence or a fragment: He said, "The course is difficult." She said that she will "observe the rules."

If a quote runs from one paragraph to a second, do not put closed quotes at the end of the first paragraph. Do put open quotes at the beginning of the second. Continue with this on any subsequent paragraphs to which the quote continues.

If a partial quote ends a paragraph, use a close-quote mark at the end of the paragraph.

Quote marks are unnecessary in question-and-answer formats.

Use quote marks around unfamiliar terms the first time they are used in a story and explain the term: The scientist invented a "nanotrap," a sieve small enough to collect single atoms. Quote marks are unnecessary on subsequent use of the term.

For quotes within quotes, alternate use of double quote marks ("it") and single quote marks ('it'). Use both marks together if two quoted elements end at the same time: She said, "I read all of Frost's 'The Road Not Taken.'"

For placement with other punctuation, use the long-established printers' rules: A period or comma always go inside the quotation mark. Other punctuation such as a dash, semicolon, exclamation mark or question mark goes inside the quote marks if the punctuation applies to the quoted matter only. It goes outside the quote mark if it applies to the whole sentence.

See composition titles and nicknames for further guidance on when to use quote marks.



See ethnicity and race and nationalities and race.


Capitalize when used as part of the name of a radio station: KUAF Radio.

Radio Frequency Identification Research Center

This research center examines how radio frequency identification can be used to improve transportation and stocking of commercial goods by the retail industry. Established in 2005, the center is part of the Information Technology Research Institute in the Sam M. Walton College of Business. RFID Research Center and RFID are sufficient on second reference.

Randal Tyson Track Center

Built in 2000, the indoor track seats 5,000 and has been the home of the NCAA National Indoor Track Championships since it opened. It has two tracks, a 200-meter banked oval and a 60-meter straight-away. It also has runways for long jump and pole vault as well as space for shot put and high jump. Competition in indoor weight throw is typically held in the Willard and Pat Walker Pavilion. On second reference, Tyson Track Center is sufficient. Its building code is INTR.

Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering

The department is named for Ralph E. Martin, a benefactor of the College of Engineering who endowed the department. On second reference, the Department of Chemical Engineering is sufficient.


Use figures and hyphens: the ratio was 2-to-1, a ratio of 2-to-1, a 2-1 ratio. Always use the word ratio or majority to avoid confusion with the actual numbers. A 2-1 vote means three people voted.


The emergency notification system on campus is called RazALERT, pronounced like the words "raise alert." In the case of an emergency, notifications can be sent by SMS text, voice and email to students, faculty and staff. The system used for sending RazALERT messages is also used for non-emergency messages such as snow closings.

Razorback and Razorbacks

The Razorback is the mascot of the men's and women's athletic teams, it supplanted the earlier mascot, the Cardinal, in 1910. Use Razorback as the singular or as a modifier: She is a Razorback or the Razorback teams. Use Razorbacks otherwise.

The use of Lady Razorbacks as the mascot of the women's teams was discontinued in 2008 when the women's and men's teams were combined into one department.

The word razorback was used to refer to feral hogs in the mid-19th century because of the narrow, bony ridge of the hogs' backs. Arkansas became connected with the word due to the high number of feral hogs in the state. In the early 20th century, students and sports writers began referring to Arkansas teams as Razorbacks. Legend is that the football coach of the 1909 undefeated season, Hugo Bezdek, popularized the term after a game with Louisiana, saying his team had played like a wild band of Razorback hogs.

See also Razorback Athletics.


The name of the university's yearbook should be italicized in copy. It began publication in 1897 under the name of the Cardinal and changed its name in 1916 to the Razorback. It is produced by students.

See student media.

Razorback Athletics

As with other departments on campus, capitalize its proper name.

This department was created in 2008 to oversee both men's and women's athletics, which had previously been separate departments. The chief officer for the department is the vice chancellor for intercollegiate athletics.

Although intercollegiate sports were played at the university in the late 19th century, a department of physical education and athletics wasn't created until 1908.

University women competed in intercollegiate athletics since early in the 20th century, but a separate department of women's athletics wasn't created until 1971. During the first year, it was established under the department of health, physical education and recreation.

Women's athletics became an independent department the next school year, fielding teams during the 1972-73 school year and competing in the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women. The women's teams moved to the NCAA beginning with the 1982-83 school year.

There are eight men's varsity programs: baseball, basketball, cross country, football, golf, indoor track, outdoor track and tennis. There are 11 women's varsity programs: basketball, cross country, golf, gymnastics, indoor track, outdoor track, tennis, soccer, softball, swimming and diving, and volleyball. Despite the discrepancy in the number of programs between men's and women's sports, the number of athletes is close to parity.

When differentiating between two teams, use gender references equally: the women's tennis team and the men's tennis team; the men's basketball tournament and the women's basketball tournament. Generally, no gender reference is needed for University of Arkansas programs in which members of only one gender compete, such as baseball, football, gymnastics, soccer, softball, swimming and diving, and volleyball.

Funding for the department of intercollegiate athletics is derived from ticket sales, licensing of the university's athletic trademarks, gifts and such income as broadcast rights to games. Neither tuition nor tax dollars go to the department.

See also the Razorback, Razorback Foundation, Southeastern Conference, and University Recreation entries.

Razorback Field

Originally called Lady'Back Field, the name of the University of Arkansas soccer stadium was changed to Razorback Field in 2008. Writers should be careful not to confuse its name with the similarly named Donald W. Reynolds Razorback Stadium. Built in 1992, it seats 1,500 people, and its building code is SSPA.

Razorback Foundation

This foundation is a separate, nonprofit corporation created in 1982 to provide financial support to the university's athletics department. When necessary to show its separate incorporation, the abbreviation Inc. may be added to the end of the name: Razorback Foundation Inc.

Refer also to University of Arkansas Foundation.

Razorback Pride

This bronze statuary on the Union Mall was donated by the Alpha Delta Pi Sorority in 2001 to celebrate the sesquicentennial of its national founding. It depicts a young pig and was designed by Hank Kaminsky. Italicize its name.

Razorback Stadium

Refer also to the Donald W. Reynolds Razorback Stadium entry.

Razorback Transit

This transit service provides free bus travel to the University of Arkansas community and general public. Its hub is the Stadium Drive Parking Facility, but its routes extend to the Fayetteville square and north to the Northwest Arkansas Mall. Capitalize the names of routes: Blue Route, Maple Hill Express Route.

Refer also to the Transit and Parking entry.


The Razorbug is a conversion car, starting with a red Volkswagen beetle and adding a Razorback's snout, tail and razor-edged spine to the original body. It has been used for recruitment and special events since 2005.


Follow the rules for prefixes, but generally no hyphen when followed by a word that starts with a consonant. Generally, use a hyphen with words that start with an "e": re-election, re-emerge, re-enact. Another exception is re-creation.

recreational sports

See the University Recreation entry.

reference works

Capitalize names of reference works, but don't italicize them or set them off by quote marks: Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary.


See the directions and regions entry.

registered student organizations

A student organization must be registered with the university to receive full benefits of campus facilities or be eligible for student funding. Capitalize the proper names of student organizations. RSO is sufficient on second reference.

registered trademarks

See trademarks.

Registrar's Office

As with other offices, leave lowercase.

Rehabilitation Research and Training Center for Persons Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

Established in 1981, this center is administratively based in the College of Education and Health Professions and conducts research and training designed to enhance the rehabilitation outcomes of people who are deaf or hard of hearing. The center is in Little Rock.

Reid Hall

Built in 1966, this residential hall was named for Martha McKenzie Reid, who served on the faculty from 1923 to 1940 and was the university's first full-time dean of women. Reid Hall has about 459 beds for students and remains a women's hall. Its building code is REID.

reign, rein

Reign is the period across which a ruler is on the throne: The queen began her reign. A rein is the leather strap used to guide a horse and used figuratively in similar fashion: seize the reins, give free rein.

representative, Rep.

Use the latter capitalized as a title before the name of a state or federal legislator: U.S. Rep. John Boozman, Arkansas Rep. Lindsley Smith. Use the former lowercase for generic expressions: He is a representative on the Campus Council.


This term can refer either to courses that must be taken in a degree program or to courses that must be taken prior to enrollment in a more advanced course. Many higher-level courses require that a student have passed a prerequisite course before enrolling, while other courses require that a student be enrolled at the same time in a corequisite course.

For instance, a lecture course and its lab component are nearly always listed as corequisites.

Research Frontiers

This magazine about research at the University of Arkansas is published semiannually.

Reserve Officers' Training Corps

The University of Arkansas, as a land-grant institution, is required to offer military training. The university has both an Air Force ROTC unit and an Army ROTC unit. The acronym ROTC is sufficient in all references.

residence hall

Preferred to dormitory. Residence halls include:

Former residence halls and living quarters that are no longer standing include:

  • Buchanan Hall
  • Camp Leroy Pond
  • Camp Neil Martin
  • Carlson Terrace
  • Fulbright Hall
  • Gray Hall
  • Hill Hall
  • Lloyd Halls
  • Terrace Manor Apartments
  • Terry Village
  • Veterans Village

Former residence halls currently used for nonresidential purposes:

See also the Duncan Avenue Apartments entry.


When referring to a student as a resident, try to be specific about whether the student is an on-campus resident or an off-campus resident.

See the citizen, subject, nationalities and races entry.

resident assistant

Don't use R.A. except in quoted material. A resident assistant is an upperclass student who serves students living in a residence hall.

Residents' Interhall Congress

This is the governing body of students who live on campus.


Not restauranteur.

Reynolds Center

See the Donald W. Reynolds Center for Enterprise Development.

Richard B. Atkinson Memorial Courtyard

This courtyard is the quad surrounded by the Leflar Law Center. It is named in memory of the late dean of the School of Law and was dedicated in 2008. The courtyard and associated sculpture were designed by artist Jesús Moroles.


See the nurse entry.

"Roads Scholarships"

The Arkansas Alumni Association raises money for scholarships through a state program in which drivers may pay extra for a personalized Razorback license plate. The nickname for the scholarships is "Roads Scholarships," a play on the better known Rhodes Scholarship.

Robert A. and Vivian Young Law Library

This library is physically part of the Leflar Law Center and administratively part of the University of Arkansas Libraries. Young Law Library is sufficient on second reference.

Robert L. Morris and Elizabeth M. Walker Reading Room

This reading room is in Mullins Library and serves the department of special collections. On second reference, Walker Reading Room is sufficient.

Roman numerals

Use Roman numerals to set sequence for names of people and animals as well as the names of wars and some sporting events: World War I, Tusk II, Henry XIII, Superbowl XXIII. Also use Roman numerals for certain legislative acts: Title IX.

Roman numerals:

I = 1
V = 5
X = 10
L = 50
C = 100
D = 500
M = 1,000

All other Roman numerals are formed from these letters in series. Placing a lower number in front of a higher number means to subtract it from the larger number: IX equals 9. Placing a number of equal or lower value behind a number adds to the total: XI equals 11. A combination can also add and subtract: XIV equals 14; MMIX could be used to represent the year 2009.


Capitalize the names of specially designated rooms: Verizon Ballroom, Giffels Auditorium, the Six Pioneers Room. When designating a room number, capitalize Room when used with a figure: Room 815, Hotz Hall, or Kimpel Room 303.


This acronym is sufficient in all references for Reserve Officers' Training Corps.

See Reserve Officers' Training Corps.

ROTC Building

See Army ROTC Building.


The abbreviation for the French respondez s'il vous plait (respond if you please), means please reply. No periods necessary.



Abbreviate as St. when part of the names of saints and cities: St. Paul, St. Louis. An exception is Sault Ste. Marie.

Sam M. Walton College of Business

On second reference, Walton College is sufficient. Lowercase college when it stands alone. The college is named for Sam M. Walton, the founder of Wal-Mart Stores Inc.

Sand Hog

In 1986, staff members of Facilities Management created a machine that would allow them to engrave the names of graduates into Senior Walk. They called it the Sand Hog. It blasts sand through rubberized stencils into cured concrete and vacuums up the sand as it goes to reuse.


Acceptable in all references to the previously designated Scholastic Aptitude Test or Scholastic Assessment Test.


Capitalize scene when used with a number to designate a specific part of a play: Scene 4; Act 1, Scene 2. Lowercase otherwise: the rewritten scene of the play.


Capitalize when used as part of a proper name: Fulbright Scholar, Rhodes Scholar or Truman Scholar. Lowercase when it stands alone.

scholar-athlete, student-athlete

Join the two roles together with a hyphen.


Capitalize when used with the proper name of a scholarship: Sturgis Scholarship, Silas Hunt Distinguished Scholarship. Lowercase when it stands alone.


Capitalize when part of the name of a school: School of Law, Fay Jones School of Architecture and Design. Lowercase when it stands alone: The school offers five majors. Administratively, some of the schools at the university have their own deans and answer directly to the provost while others are departments within a college and answer to the dean of the college. See individual entries for more details.

Schools at the University of Arkansas:

  • Eleanor Mann School of Nursing
  • Fay Jones School of Architecture and Design
  • Graduate School
  • Graduate School of Business
  • School of Art
  • School of Human Environmental Sciences
  • School of Journalism and Strategic Media
  • School of Law
  • School of Social Work
See also the colleges entry.

School of Art

The School of Art was established in 2017 with a major gift of $120 million from the Walton Family Charitable Support Foundation, elevating the department of art to a school, the first in Arkansas. The gift is the largest ever to support or establish an American school of art. The School of Art is part of the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences and is housed in the Fine Arts Center. The school also operates a Sculpture Studio and Ceramics Studio just off the main campus.

School of Continuing Education and Academic Outreach

For marketing purposes, see the Global Campus entry.

School of Human Environmental Sciences

The school is part of the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences. It oversees programs of study such as apparel merchandising, nutrition, hospitality, and family sciences.

School of Journalism and Strategic Media

The school, formerly known as the Walter J. Lemke Department of Journalism, is part of the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences. Its major includes concentrations in news/editorial, broadcast and advertising/public relations as well as combined majors in English and political science. KUAF Radio is administratively part of the school. The school is housed in Kimpel Hall.

School of Law

It is based in the Leflar Law Center. Lowercase school when it stands alone.

School of Social Work

The School of Social Work is part of the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences.

Science Engineering Auditorium

Built in 1964, the auditorium seated 384. It was razed in August 2011 to make way for construction of the new Hillside Auditorium.

Science Engineering Building

Built in 1964, the building is connected by walkways to Daniel E. Ferritor Hall and by skywalks to the Bell Engineering Center. Its building code is SCEN.


Use for either gender.


The names of works of art should be italicized. The following list gives the artwork title, artist and year of installation for most permanent sculptures on campus:

  • Ben Drew Kimpel, Jim Westbrook, 1995, west side of Kimpel Hall
  • Big Red, Nancy W. Counch, 2006
  • Calder Mobiles, Alexander Calder, 1951
  • Cathedral No. 1, Sean and Robert Adair, c1990s, The Gardens
  • Connections, Robert Elliott, 2003, south of White Engineering Hall
  • Courage to Lead, Denny Haskew, 2003, northeast of Vol Walker Hall
  • Donald W. Reynolds (2), Barbara Henshaw, 1998, one in the Reynolds Center and one in the Reynolds Razorback Stadium
  • Dr. David W. Mullins, Subrata Lahiri, 1975, west entrance to Mullins Library
  • Enchantment, Dario Viterbo, 1956
  • Happenings, Subrata Lahiri, c1975
  • Haunted House No. 2, Susanna Jones, 2001
  • Hog Wild, Richard Thompson, 2007, The Gardens
  • Il Porcellino, Pietro Tacca, 2006, southeast of University House
  • Irma Fitch Giffels, 1982, entry to Giffels Auditorium, Old Main
  • J. William Fulbright (standing), Greta Bader, 2002, courtyard of Old Main
  • J. William Fulbright (bust), Greta Bader, 1982, inside Old Main, fourth floor
  • A Moment of Clarity, Roger Columbik, c2000
  • Oddysey of the Spheres, George Rhoads, 2008, lobby of Mechanical Engineering Building
  • Owen and Hildur Bell, Hank Kaminsky, 1987, southeast entry of Bell Engineering
  • Ralph E. Martin, Hank Kaminsky, 2005
  • Razorback Pride, Hank Kaminsky, 2001, northeast of Arkansas Union
  • Rebirth, Anita Huffington, 1998, Mullins Library
  • Robert A. Leflar, Michael Kelley, 1989, north side of Leflar Law Center
  • Samuel Moore Walton, Hank Kaminsky, 1992, lobby of Business Building
  • Sentascape No. 1, Myron Brody
  • Sentascape No. 2, Myron Brody
  • Spring, Anita Huffington, 1993, Old Main
  • Standing Man, Sean Adair, c1990s
  • Stone Hog, Orville Skaggs, c1999, rear driveway of Alumni House
  • Untitled running razorback, unknown, 2009, John Tyson Building
  • Untitled rooster and hen, William H. Turner, 1995, John Tyson Building
See also monuments, the names of which are not italicized.

Sculpture Studio

A warehouse on South Hill Avenue, just south of Martin Luther King Boulevard, is being renovated and expanded to create a Sculpture Studio for the School of Art. Its building code is SCUL.


Lowercase fall, spring, summer, winter and similar words such as autumn or springlike unless part of a proper name: fall semester, Autumnfest, spring break, Summer Olympics, fall 2024, or summer 2025.

second majors

Also referred to as dependent majors, second majors are programs of study through which students can learn more about a specialized area. A student fulfills the requirements of a first major and then fulfills additional coursework in the second major.

Second majors at the university include:

  • African and African American Studies
  • Asian Studies
  • Latin American and Latino Studies
  • Middle East Studies
See also the entries on double majors, combined majors and majors.


Use a hyphen when the two roles are held by one person.


See the class, course, section entry.


See the Southwest Experimental Fast Oxide Reactor entry.


Always hyphenate: self-governing, self-disciplined.


Lowercase: spring semester.

Refer also to the intersession, intercession and summer sessions entries.


In general, no hyphen necessary: semifinal, semiofficial, semitropical.


Twice a year.


In general, use a semicolon to indicate greater separation of thought and information than a comma can convey but less separation than a period implies.

Use it to clarify a series when items in the series are long or have segments set off by commas: She teaches chemistry, both introductory and advanced; biochemistry, only the second semester; and organic chemistry, when needed.

Also use a semicolon to link independent clauses when a coordinating conjunction such as and, but or for is not present: The exam started on time; it took two hours.


Capitalize when referring to legislative bodies: U.S. Senate, Arkansas Senate, Faculty Senate, Staff Senate, Student Senate.

senator, Sen.

Use the latter uppercase as a title before the name of a state or federal legislator: U.S. Sen. John Boozman, Arkansas Sen. Uvalde Lindsey. Use the former for generic expressions: He is a senator in the Staff Senate.

send off (v.), send-off (n.)

Examples: He will send off an email. She planned the send-off.


See student standing.

Senior Walk

Capitalize the name of the sidewalks that contain the names of the graduates of the University of Arkansas. The tradition was started by the class of 1905, and earlier graduates were added at a later date. There were no graduates conferred in 1887 or 1895 because commencement was moved from spring to fall in 1887 and then back again in 1895, so those years do not appear on Senior Walk.

Names in Senior Walk have been impressed and engraved into the concrete walks. For literal descriptions, avoid using etched, which is an engraving process that uses acid and has never been used for Senior Walk. Impression has been done both manually in the early years, in which a student wrote the names of fellow seniors in wet concrete, and later through a mechanical process in which forms of raised brass letters were combined into blocks of names and impressed into wet concrete.

Today, the names are engraved using the Senior Sand Hog, a machine created by staff members of Facilities Management that sandblasts names into cured concrete.

Writers should be aware that the sidewalk is not a complete compilation of all graduates. The tradition began as a list of seniors, regardless of whether they graduated. In the 1910, the Board of Trustees voted to allow only graduates' names, but not all graduates' names appear in the sidewalk. During the 1970s and 1980s, for instance, students paid a fee to have their names included, but some students chose not to pay the fee. Students in more recent years have also chosen not to have their name included for privacy reasons.

The university has also engraved the names of those who have received honorary degrees, the presidents and chancellors, and the members of the Board of Trustees in separate sidewalks near Silas Hunt Hall.

By the class of 2017, names stretched more than 7.8 miles up and down along more than 3.9 miles of sidewalk. Because names are on both sides of a sidewalk, the length of names is limited to 29 characters including spaces and degree abbreviation.

The classes in Senior Walk reflect names of students who graduated in spring, summer and fall. The choice of which class to assign the non-spring graduates changed in 2010. Prior to 2010, the names in a Senior Walk class included the previous-year summer and fall names with the current-year spring graduate names. The year 2010 includes the previous-year summer and fall names as well as the 2010 spring and summer names. After 2010, the class has included the previous-semester fall names and the current-year spring and summer names.

The first 50 years were reinstalled in 2020 due to damage and deterioration of the early hand-mixed sections of walk.


See the military titles entry.

set up (v.), setup (n. and adj.)

Examples: She will set up the experiment. The setup works fine.

sexual orientation

Do not use sexual preference, which carries an implication that sexuality is a matter of choice. Refer to an individual’s sexual orientation only when pertinent to the story.

See also the cisgender, gay, lesbian, straight, and transgender entries.


See the her, she entry.

should, would

Use should to show obligation: Students should attend class. Use would to show common action: If students were to attend class more, they would make better grades.

show off (v.), showoff (n.)

Examples: The researcher will show off the results. The showoff gained attention.

Silas H. Hunt Hall

Built in 1965 as the university's first indoor pool, the building was renovated in 1992 and named for Silas Hunt, the first African American student to attend the University of Arkansas since Reconstruction. The building houses the offices of admission and the registrar. On second reference, Hunt Hall is sufficient. Its building code is HUNT.


Capitalize when used before the name of a nun. Lowercase otherwise.

Six Pioneers

This phrase refers to the first six African American students to enroll at the University of Arkansas School of Law since Reconstruction, starting the integration of the university in 1948. The Six Pioneers are Silas H. Hunt, Jackie Shropshire, George Haley, Chris Mercer, Wiley A. Branton and George Howard Jr. Capitalize the phrase when referring to this group. Similarly, the Six Pioneers Room should be capitalized.

Sixth Street

See the Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard entry.


Generally, avoid use of slang words or argot except when they provide context and color for a story.

See also the jargon entry.


Acceptable in phrases such as 24/7 or 9/11, but otherwise should be confined to special situations such as fractions, web addresses or to denote the end of a line of quoted poetry.

Small Business and Technology Development Center

Located in the Sam M. Walton College of Business, the center provides small businesses with consulting and technical assistance as well as resources from federal, state and local governments.

small-business owner

Without the hyphen, small business owner reads as though the business owner is small rather than the business being small. So hyphenate it. Similarly, small-business woman or small-business man.

social media

While this style guide provides good general advice for writing and communicating via social media, the nature of social media is more conversational, more casual and more informal than traditional forms of communication such as media releases. Writers should be aware of the conventions of the social media in which they are participating and adhere to those conventions.

Some of the university's social media include:


Capitalize when part of a proper name: the Arnold Air Society. Societies of the Arkansas Alumni Association are affinity groups.

See also the Arkansas Alumni Association entry.

song titles

See the composition titles entry.


See student standing.


See the Greek entry.


The U.S. Census Bureau defines the South as including 16 states: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia.

In cultural or historical contexts, the South often refers to those 11 states that seceded from the United States in 1861: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia.

Southeastern Conference

SEC is acceptable on second reference. Other schools in the Southeastern Conference include University of Alabama, Auburn University, University of Florida, University of Georgia, University of Kentucky, Louisiana State University, University of Mississippi, Mississippi State University, University of South Carolina, University of Tennessee and Vanderbilt University.

The university joined the Southeastern Conference in 1992 upon leaving the now-defunct Southwest Athletic Conference. The university was a charter member of the Southwest Conference, founded in 1914.

south tower

Use lowercase in reference to the two towers of Old Main. The south tower contains the clock, which was installed in 2005 and 2006. The clockworks are on public display on the fourth floor.

Southwest Experimental Fast Oxide Reactor

Operated from 1969 to 1972, this nuclear reactor was built near the Strickler community and tested the safety of using oxide and liquid sodium to cool the core of the reactor. After it was decommissioned in 1972, it was acquired by the university in 1975. Removal of the building and returning the site to greenfield continues. SEFOR is sufficient on second reference.

Southwest Radiation Calibration Center

The center provides services for neutron radiation survey equipment that requires periodic calibration. Established in 1983, the center is based at the Engineering Research Center.


Capitalize the name of spacecraft and use Arabic figures: Hera, Gemini 7, Apollo 12.


Same in both singular and plural. Use singular or plural verbs and pronouns depending on sense: The species is indigenous to Arkansas. Five species are found in Arkansas.

See the genus, species entry.

Speech and Hearing Clinic

The clinic is part of the university's department of rehabilitation, human resources, and communication disorders in the College of Education and Health Professions. It offers evaluation and treatment for children and adults for hearing loss, central auditory processing, articulation, fluency, voice, language, augmentative and alternative communication, swallowing, and spoken English for foreign speakers.


Capitalize and use in quote marks the title of a speech or lecture.

See also composition titles.


Use figures: 55 miles per hour, 26 knots, 15 feet per second.


See the dictionaries entry.

spirit squads

The university has three types of spirit squads: cheerleader squads, pompom squads and mascots. See separate entries for each.

split infinitive

See the verb entry.

spokesman, spokeswoman

The Associated Press recommends using representative if gender is unknown rather than use spokesperson.

Spoofer's Stone

Uppercase the name of this stone bench, a block of limestone that was left over from construction of Old Main.

The Sports Advantage

This long-running series is produced by UATV. Italicize its name.


See the seasons entry.

spring break

Lowercase. The dates for the University of Arkansas spring break and all public educational institutions in Arkansas are currently set as the last week of March by the Arkansas General Assembly for a two-year trial period.

Spring International Language Center

The language center is housed at the University of Arkansas and provides intensive English training for international students and cross-cultural education. It also provides pre-academic programs for Fulbright Scholars who attend the University of Arkansas.


Capitalize when part of a formal name: Fayetteville Square.

stadium, stadiums

See the athletic venues and Donald W. Reynolds Razorback Stadium entries.

Stadium Drive Parking Facility

Built in 1999, the building was originally known as the Intermodal Transit and Parking Facility. It contains 586 parking spaces and the central terminal for Razorback Transit. It is just south of the Arkansas Union, and its building code is IMTF.

See also the parking lots and facilities. and Razorback Transit entries.


When writing about the staff as a whole, staff should be treated as a singular noun: The staff is in favor of the new schedule. When writing about individuals, use staff members to avoid noun-verb difficulties: Five staff members chose the design.

Staff Senate

Staff Senate was established in 1995 to represent the classified and non-classified staff on the University of Arkansas campus. Its officers are a chair, vice chair and secretary. Staff members elect 27 senators from among university divisions for three-year terms. The Staff Senate also includes one ex-officio member.

See also Campus Council.


Lowercase in all state of constructions: the state of Arkansas.

Spell out the names of all states when used in narrative copy: She is from Springfield, Missouri.

Use a postal abbreviation only when giving a mailing address: Office of University Relations, 800 Hotz Hall, 1 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701.

Following is a list of state names, traditional abbreviations and postal abbreviations:

State   Abbr.   Postal
Alabama   Ala.   AL
Alaska   Alaska   AK
Arizona   Ariz.   AZ
Arkansas   Ark.   AR
California   Calif.   CA
Colorado   Colo.   CO
Connecticut   Conn.   CT
Delaware   Del.   DE
District of Columbia     D.C.   DC
Florida   Fla.   FL
Georgia   Ga.   GA
Hawaii   Hawaii     HI
Idaho   Idaho   ID
Illinois   Ill.   IL
Indiana   Ind.   IN
Iowa   Iowa   IA
Kansas   Kan.   KA
Kentucky   Ky.   KY
Louisiana   La.   LA
Maine   Maine   MA
Maryland   Md.   MD
Massachusetts   Mass.   MA
Michigan   Mich.   MI
Minnesota   Minn.   MN
Mississippi   Miss.   MS
Missouri   Mo.   MO
Montana   Mont.   MT
Nebraska   Neb.   NE
Nevada   Nev.   NV
New Hampshire   N.H.   NH
New Jersey   N.J.   NJ
New Mexico   N.M.   NM
New York   N.Y.   NY
North Carolina   N.C.   NC
North Dakota   N.D.   ND
Ohio   Ohio   OH
Oklahoma   Okla.   OK
Oregon   Ore.   OR
Pennsylvania   Pa.   PA
Rhode Island   R.I.   RI
South Carolina   S.C.   SC
South Dakota   S.D.   SD
Tennessee   Tenn.   TN
Texas   Texas   TX
Utah   Utah   UT
Vermont   Vt.   VT
Virginia   Va.   VA
Washington   Wash.   WA
West Virginia   W.V.   WV
Wisconsin   Wisc.   WI
Wyoming   Wyo.   WY
See also cities and territories.

State of the University

Capitalize when referring to the chancellor's annual address. Lowercase otherwise: The accreditation panel will examine the state of the university.

stationary, stationery

Standing still is stationary. Writing paper is stationery.

Stella Boyle Smith Concert Hall

This hall is part of the Fine Arts Center and is used by the Department of Music for recitals and concerts. It seats 220.

Stone House

Designed by Edward Durell Stone for the Sigma Nu chapter house, it includes two buildings. The buildings are used as swing space for office and research space while other buildings are being renovated. Its building codes are STON and STOS.


An informal reference for heterosexual and considered slang by some references, the term may be useful when drawing distinction with the term gay. For instance: Both gay and straight student organizations opposed the measure.

Refer also to the cisgender, gay and gender entries Sustainability House entries.


Abbreviate only with a numbered address: 924 W. Maple St., but the building is on Maple Street.

In Fayetteville, streets usually run east-west while avenues run north-south.

A list of streets and avenues that touch on campus:

Arkansas Avenue   Markham Road
Cardwell Lane   Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard
Center Street   McIlroy Avenue
Cleveland Street   Meadow Street
Clinton Drive   Mitchell Street
Dickson Street   Nettleship Street
Douglas Street   Oakland Avenue
Duncan Avenue   Oliver Avenue
Eastern Avenue   Razorback Road
Fairview Street   Reagan Street
Garland Avenue   Smith Avenue
Graham Avenue   Stadium Drive
Harmon Avenue   Storer Avenue
Hotz Drive   Thomas Avenue
Leroy Pond Drive      University Avenue
Ladyback Drive   Walton Street
Lafayette Street   West Avenue
Leverett Avenue   Whitham Avenue
Lindell Avenue   William Street
Maple Street    
See also the addresses and avenues entries.


Join these two roles with a hyphen.

student media

The Division of Student Affairs includes an office of student media responsible for the financial and organization support for student media on the campus. Currently, the office oversees six student media — The Arkansas Traveler newspaper, Hill Magazine, KXUA radio, Main Hill Media advertising agency, Razorback yearbook and UATV. Each of the student media is a student organization and includes a faculty adviser. While the student media are editorially independent, a Student Media Advisory Board that includes representation by students, faculty and staff provides advice on policies and procedures for the media.

See also entries for Arkansas Traveler, Hill Magazine, KXUA, Main Hill Media, Razorback yearbook and UATV.

Student Senate

This is the legislative branch of the Associated Student Government. Its senators represent the colleges and schools at the university.

See also Associated Student Government.

student standing

Undergraduate student classification is defined as follows:

  • Freshman — Fewer than 30 hours passed
  • Sophomore — From 30 to 59 hours passed
  • Junior — From 60 to 89 hours passed
  • Senior — 90 or more credit hours passed

Student Success Center

The term Student Success Center refers both to the university's academic tutoring and mentoring program as well as the building that is being constructed just north of Old Main on the site of the old School of Social Work Building. The 71,000-square-foot center will unify and house the U of A's many student success programs and resources designed to help students navigate financial, academic and other roadblocks they may face before graduation. It will also have coffee shop and sandwich shop that open onto a courtyard on the south side. Its design and exterior materials match the traditional collegiate gothic buildings of the historic campus core. Ground was broken in 2019, and the building is expected to be finished by early 2022.


Several interdisciplinary programs of study draw on expertise from a variety of departments for majors, second majors and minors. Among the programs: African American studies, American studies, Asian studies, Classical studies, gender studies, indigenous studies, Jewish studies, Latin American studies, legal studies, medieval and Renaissance studies, Middle East studies, religious studies, rhetoric and writing studies, and Russian studies.

study abroad

Capitalize the name of the office that oversees study abroad programs: Office of Study Abroad, but lowercase otherwise: He studied abroad; her study abroad was fulfilling. Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier: The student is in the study-abroad program. She will study abroad this semester.


In general, no hyphen: subcommittee, subdivision, subtotal, subzero.


Lowercase when used with the name of a body's full committee: a Board of Trustees subcommittee. Capitalize when a subcommittee has a proper name of its own.


See the citizen, resident, subject, national, native entry.

subjunctive mood

See the verb entry.

Sue Walk Burnett Student Media Center

The Sue Walk Burnett Student Media Center is under development on the north end of Kimpel Hall. When finished, it will house operations of the Razorback yearbook, The Arkansas Traveler student newspaper, the UATV student television studio, the Hill magazine and probably the KXUA student radio station.

See also the Arkansas Traveler, Hill magazine, KXUA, Razorback and UATV entries.


See separate listings for commonly used suffixes. When added to a root word, many suffixes affect the spelling of the root word. Follow Webster's New World Dictionary for spelling of words not in this guide.

See also prefixes.


See seasons.

summer sessions

Do not use summer semester. The university holds classes across varying lengths of time during the summer. Some sessions last a few weeks; others span the entire summer. Lowercase and use Roman numerals to indicate which session: He is attending summer session II.

See also the intersession, intercession and semesters entries.



See also heavenly bodies.


In general, no hyphen: supercharge, superconductivity, superhighway, superpower.

Supply Chain Management Research Center

Based in the Sam M. Walton College of Business, the center promotes research and education regarding supply chain, logistics and transportation.

supreme court

Capitalize when referring to either the federal supreme court or a state supreme court: Supreme Court of the United States, Arkansas Supreme Court.

suspensive hyphenation

Use this form: The first- and second-year law students.

Sustainability Consortium

The University of Arkansas and the Arizona State University jointly operate the Sustainability Consortium, an independent organization of companies and other organizations that work collaboratively to improve consumer product sustainability. The consortium develops methodologies, tools and strategies to improve both products and supply networks in ways that address environmental, social and economic imperatives. The consortium, which was founded in 2009, also has a European partnership with Wageningen University in the Netherlands.

See also the Office for Sustainability entry.

Sustainability House

This house at 238 N. Harmon Ave. is home to the university Office for Sustainability. It was built in 1918 as a family residence. The building was previously known as Buchanan House, because Buchanan Avenue used to run alongside it.

See also the Office for Sustainability entry.

syllabus (s.), syllabuses (p.)

Add an es to form plural.


Tau Beta Pi Key

This monument was donated to the university by the Tau Beta Pi engineering society in 1925. It is near the south tower of Old Main.

Teaching Academy

See the University of Arkansas Teaching Academy entry.

teaching assistant

Don't use TA except in quoted material.


One word.

telephone numbers

Use figures and hyphens with the area code if the number is in the United States: 479-575-5555.

For international phone numbers, use the number needed to dial from the United States, 011, followed by the country code, the city code and the phone number: 011-44-20-7353-1515. The country code for the United States is 1. It is generally assumed.

Similarly, for toll-free numbers: 800-575-UofA.

Use hyphens between numbers.

For extensions, abbreviate the word and use a comma to separate: 479-575-5555, ext. 6731.

television program titles

See the composition titles entry.

television station

The call letters are frequently sufficient, but when the phrase is needed, use lowercase: television station UATV.


Use figures for all temperatures except zero. Use the word minus rather than the minus sign to indicate temperature below zero: The low temperature was minus 5 degrees, or the low was 5 below zero. Expect a temperature in the 30s.

See the Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin entries.


Academic tenure is designed to guarantee that faculty members have freedom of inquiry without a threat to their employment.

Generally, a new faculty member is hired as an assistant professor with expectations of demonstrating their ability to conduct and publish research, teach or perform administrative service in a set period of time. If expectations are met, the professor is granted tenure and promoted to associate professor and professor over time. Occasionally, a faculty member new to the university but who already has a proven research record may be granted tenure upon hiring.

The phrase tenure track refers to the above process. Hyphenate it when it is used as a compound modifier: a tenure-track position.

Other positions such as lecturer, adjunct professor, clinical professor, instructor, visiting professor or research professor are generally not tenured positions.


A prefix denoting 1 trillion units.

terminal degree

A terminal degree is the highest academic degree available in a particular field of study. In most fields, the terminal degree is a doctoral degree, but in some it is not. In many of the applied arts, such as art, creative writing, theatre or translation, the terminal degree is usually a Master of Fine Arts.

See also the academic degrees entry.


In usage, treat territories of the United States the same as states. Spell them out.

Following is a list of territories, their traditional abbreviations and their postal abbreviations:

Territory   Abbr.   Postal
American Somoa   Amer. Samoa   AS
Guam   Guam   GU
Puerto Rico   P.R.   PR
Virgin Islands   V.I.   VI
See also the states entry.

Terrorism Research Center

This center provides a record of federal terrorism cases resulting from indictment under FBI "terrorism enterprise" investigations from 1980 to the present. The center is based in the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences.


The following are some commonly used standardized tests used by universities for admission and placement purposes:

  • ACT, formerly American College Testing Program, a test for undergraduate admissions.
  • CLEP, College Level Examination Program, a test that qualifies a student for course credit in lieu of taking the course.
  • GATE, Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering.
  • GMAT, Graduate Management Admissions Test, a test for graduate business admissions.
  • GRE, Graduate Record Examination, used for graduate admissions.
  • IELTS, International English Language Testing System, used to determine how well an applicant will succeed in using English at the college level.
  • LSAT, Law School Admission Test.
  • MAT, Miller Analogies Test, graduate admissions
  • PCAT, Pharmacy College Admission Test.
  • Praxis, a teacher certification test.
  • SAT, formerly the Scholastic Aptitude Test, a test for undergraduate admissions.
  • TOEFL, Test of English as a Foreign Language, used to determine how well an applicant will succeed in using standardized English at college level.

that, which

Use that to introduce essential clauses and which to introduce nonessential clauses. If a clause can be dropped from a sentence without the sentence losing its meaning, the clause is nonessential. Set it off by commas: The team, which finished last in the tournament, is expected to win the season. The team that plays Arkansas this week is Vanderbilt.


Capitalization of the is unnecessary unless it is the first word of a title: The Way We Were. For names of periodicals, use the publication's style for whether the is part of its name: the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, The Washington Post, or The New York Times.

For names of universities, capitalization of the is unnecessary. Use the when the name of a university or institution when of is part of the name: She attends the University of Arkansas; he is a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the reunion is at the College of William and Mary. Do not use the for names of universities or institutions without of as part of the name: She attends Arkansas State University; he is a graduate of Harvard University; the reunion is at Ohio State University.

theater, theatre

The Associated Press preference is to use theater in all references except when the proper name of a theater is spelled otherwise: Chi Omega Greek Theatre, movie theater, Teatro Scarpino, Union Theatre, University Theatre, the university's academic Department of Theatre, the university's Black Box Theater at the Global Campus Building.

their, them, they

The personal pronouns they and them and the personal pronoun possessive their are commonly used as non-gendered plural pronouns. The singular usage of all three has also occurred for perhaps 600 years, although mostly in instances when the gender of a subject was neutral or unknown: When a student majors in journalism, they must choose one of two concentrations

In recent years, their, them and they have been more frequently used by individuals who prefer a non-gendered pronoun. Each of the pronouns may be used in the singular when it is preferred by the subject of the writing. Judicious use should be considered, however, to prevent confusion to the reader. This is still a relatively new usage. Repetition of the person's proper name might be preferable in an instance when a person is only mentioned once or twice in an article. If the person is the subject of an extended article, though, an editor's note or a sentence explaining that the subject prefers the pronouns they, them and their can alleviate some reader confusion as well.  

When using they as a singular pronoun, though, it continues to take a plural verb:

  • RIGHT: Professor Smith said they have a new research assistant.
  • WRONG: Professor Smith said they has a new research assistant.
See also the entries on gender, he, him, hisher, hers, she, it, its and personal pronounsn.

their, there, they're

Their is a personal possessive pronoun: They went to their class.

There is an adverb indicating direction: They went there for instruction. It is also used as a pronoun for impersonal constructions in which the real subject follows the verb: There are better ways to learn.

They're is a contraction for they are.


When used with a proper title, it remains lowercase and is connected by a hyphen: Back when the changes were made, then-Chancellor Mary Smith said they would reward the university for years to come. In instances when the sentence is not reflecting back to a time period, former may be more appropriate.


This giving society is made up of benefactors to the university who have given for three or more consecutive years.


On second reference, 3-D is preferred.

time element

When giving a time for an event, use central standard or central daylight time for events happening in Arkansas. Generally, central time is assumed, but if it is necessary to show the time is central, use either CST (Central Standard Time) or CDT (Central Daylight Time) as abbreviations after the time. If an event is happening elsewhere, use the time zone of that region but include the central time in parenthesis: The Los Angeles alumni chapter will meet for a watch party at 10 a.m. (Noon CST).

When an event occurs at the top of the hour, the minutes are unnecessary: 3 p.m. rather than 3:00 p.m.

Use a.m. and p.m. lowercase. Use noon and midnight rather than 12 a.m. or p.m.

The proper order for listing an event is time, day, date, place: The meeting will be at 2 p.m. Monday, July 1, at the Arkansas Union. In an exception to the Associated Press, which says to use either day or date but not both, the university style guide recommends using both day and date in media releases to prevent confusion about whether a day of the week is coming or past. Don't use today, tonight, yesterday or tomorrow except when quoting someone.


See the entitled entry.


Titles of officeholders should be capitalized when preceding a person's name: Chancellor John A. White, Provost Smith, ASG President Joe Jones, Senate Pro Tempore Mary Smith.

When using modifiers such as acting, designate, elect, former, interim or then, capitalize the title but lowercase the modifier: interim Chair Mike Smith, President-elect Jones.

See also academic titles, composition titles, courtesy titles, headlines, military titles and occupational titles.

today, tomorrow, tonight

Use the day and date rather than today, tomorrow or tonight, except in direct quotations: The university announced the partnership Monday, Jan. 11. "Today is the beginning of a new era," the dean said.

Don't use the redundant 8 p.m. tonight.


There are three types. A short ton is equal to 2,000 pounds. A long ton, also called a British ton, is equal to 2,240 pounds. A metric ton is equal to 1,000 kilograms, or about 2,204.62 pounds.

total, totaled, totaling

The phrase a total of is usually unnecessary but is acceptable when used to avoid starting a sentence with a number: A total of 3,512 freshmen enrolled.


Not towards.

Towers of Old Main

This giving society is made up of benefactors who have given a minimum of $100,000 to the university over their lifetime.


See the cities and towns entry.


A trademark is a brand, symbol, word, etc., used by a company or institution and protected by law from use by others. The University of Arkansas has trademarked many of its brand elements, among them:

  • Arkansas (as it pertains to the university)
  • Arkansas Razorbacks
  • The Old Main tower logo
  • Razorback (in word and image)
  • University of Arkansas
  • University of Arkansas Seal
  • Wooo Pig Sooie

Although vendors that market materials and products licensed by the university are required to use either a ® or a ™ symbol with University of Arkansas trademarks, the trademark symbols (® and ™) are generally not needed in media releases unless the story is about trademarks.

Similarly, other trademarked words used in media releases do not need the symbols. If a release is about a new product or program for which trademark is important, write out the explanation: The new product Excelsior, which is trademarked, was developed at the university.


Generally no hyphen: transcontinental, transoceanic.

Transit and Parking

The Transit and Parking department on campus oversees a variety of services that extend beyond the campus boundaries. Transit services include Razorback Transit, Safe Ride and Paratransit. Parking services offered include long-term parking permits, visitor parking permits, metered parking and parking enforcement.  Capitalize when referring to the name of the unit, but lowercase either transit or parking when using them generically: On game days, Transit and Parking is responsible for making sure that parking is available and transit changes are communicated.

Refer also to the parking lots and facilities and Razorback Transit entries.


A transgender person is someone who has a gender identity or expression that is different from their assigned gender at birth. Generally, a person's gender identity is unnecessary. When gender is central to a story, use personal pronouns that are preferred by the subject.

Refer also to the cisgender and gender entries.


See the Arkansas Traveler entry.


Capitalize when used as a formal title before a name.


This term can refer to a sovereign political entity as well as communities sharing a common ancestry, culture or language, and a social group of linked families whom may be part of an ethnic group. Capitalize tribe when it is part of the formal name of a sovereign political entity or a community sharing a common ancestry, culture or language. Use the identity specific to the tribe, nation or community: the Quapaw Tribe, the Cherokee Nation.

Refer also to the American Indian, Native American, ethnicity and race and nationalities and races entries.

trustee, trusty

A trustee is a person to whom management of an institution or property has been given: The University of Arkansas trustees approved construction of a new academic building.

A trusty is a prison inmate granted privileges as a trustworthy person. Neither is capitalized.

try out (v.), tryout (n.)

Examples: He will try out for cheerleader. The tryout is at noon.


Named such because it looks like a capital letter T.


On second reference, TB is acceptable.


Acceptable as an abbreviation for television.

Tyson Track Center

See Randal Tyson Track Center.


UA, UAF, U of A

See the University of Arkansas entry.

UA Black Box Theater

The Department of Theatre operates the UA Black Box Theater at the Global Campus Building on the Fayetteville Square. The theater has space for a maximum of 170 seats, depending on the configuration of a production. The theater was created in 2018 after a major renovation of the lecture hall at the Global Campus Building.


This online database maintains academic records and class schedules for students, faculty and staff.

See also the Business and Administrative Strategic Information Systems entry.

UARK Federal Credit Union

The credit union is a nonprofit financial cooperative and a separate entity from the University of Arkansas.


The UAteach Program in the College of Education and Health Professions prepares students majoring in math, science and computer science to also become licensed to teach those subjects in secondary classes.


This is a cable television station produced and operated by students at the University of Arkansas. It is shown on both the Fayetteville and Springdale cable systems. Its studios are in Kimpel Hall. Names of continuing series on UATV should be italicized: On the Hill or Campus Crossfire. Titles of individual episodes or segments of a show should be in quotes.

See student media.


Acceptable in all references to unidentified flying objects.


Generally, no hyphen: ultramodern, ultranationalistic, ultrasonic.


Generally, no hyphen: un-American, unexpected, unnecessary, untested.


Generally, no hyphen: underdog, underground, undersold, undersecretary.

Union Mall

See the Central Quad entry.

Union Station

The Union Station is the transit terminal above the Stadium Drive Parking Facility and adjoining Garland Avenue next to the Arkansas Union. All of the Razorback Transit buses stop at Union Station during their circuits.

Union Theatre

The Union Theatre is on the fourth floor of the Arkansas Union and seats 294 people. It was renovated in 2008.

United Greek Council

This council oversees rules and practices for the Latinx fraternities and sororities on campus.

Refer also to the Greek entry.

United States

Spell out when used as a noun. Use U.S. as a modifier.

Unity House

Unity House provides meeting and social space for students and alumni of traditionally unhoused Greek chapters whose membership is primarily minority-based. Built in 1940 as a sorority house, the building at 1002 W. Maple St. was converted into a home for the Office of Development in 2002 and then converted to its current use in 2021. Its building code is UNHS.


On first reference, use the full name of the institution and the punctuation it prefers: the University of California-Berkeley, the University of Arkansas at Little Rock, the University of Missouri. Use the prior to an institution's name whenever a definite article would normally be used, but do not capitalize the word the before the name of an institution.

When university is used by itself, lowercase it: Arkansas fans return to the university for Homecoming.

Generally, do not abbreviate the names of institutions except in tabular material. Even then, be careful that one institution's abbreviation is not the same as another. Is USC the University of Southern California or the University of South Carolina?

See the University of Arkansas entry.

University Hall

See the Old Main entry.

University House

Refer to the Unity House entry.

University Museum

The University Museum was housed in various locations on campus during the 20th century and open to the public before the museum was closed in 2003. Today, the museum collection is retained at the Arkansas Archeological Survey building for research use.

University of Arkansas

The University of Arkansas was founded in 1871 through the Morrill Land Grant Act, and the first classes were held in early 1872. Although it was the first land-grant institution and the first state university in Arkansas, it is not the only land-grant institution or state university in Arkansas.

The name University of Arkansas should be used in full on first reference. If necessary to differentiate the University of Arkansas from other universities in the University of Arkansas System, a geographic location for the university may be used: The University of Arkansas, located in Fayetteville, is the largest institution in the state and the shorter form University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, is also an option to reduce ambiguity if another Arkansas campus is included.

On second reference, the full name University of Arkansas or simply university is preferred for more formal uses. For less formal communication in which a conversational tone is desired, use of U of A on second reference is permissible: the U of A department of English or she is an alumna of the U of A.

Use of the U of A and UA are also allowed in quoted matter, although try to avoid using UA by itself. Do not use UAF as an abbreviation for the University of Arkansas except for clerical documents.

Use the word university lowercase when it stands alone: Arkansas students return to the university for the fall semester.

Use the word the in front of the name of the University of Arkansas whenever a definite article is needed: She attends the University of Arkansas; University of Arkansas students will graduate on Saturday.

See also University of Arkansas System.

University of Arkansas Bookstore

Its main operations are located in the Garland Center, and it is operated by the university. In addition to textbooks, the bookstore oversees retail shops for general books, computers and Razorback clothing. The bookstore operates a branch retail shop at the Harmon Avenue Parking Facility too.

University of Arkansas Center for Mathematics and Science Education

The center, based in the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences in conjunction with the Arkansas Department of Higher Education, provides professional development in math, science and technology for public school teachers. It is housed in the West Avenue Annex.

University of Arkansas Community Design Center

Based in the Fay Jones School of Architecture and Design, the center advances creative development in Arkansas through education, research and design solutions that enhance the physical environment. On second reference, UACDC is sufficient.

University of Arkansas Economic Development Institute

Established in 2002, the institute promotes individual and community prosperity by extending university economic-development programs throughout the state.

University of Arkansas Foundation

Created in 1980, the foundation is a nonprofit corporation separate from the University of Arkansas. When necessary to show its separate incorporation, the abbreviation Inc. may be added to the end of the name: University of Arkansas Foundation Inc.

The staff and board of trustees of the foundation oversee investment and allocation of financial donations made in support of the university and the University of Arkansas System.

See also Razorback Foundation.

University of Arkansas Global Campus Building

The University of Arkansas Global Campus Building is at 2 E. Center St., the northeast corner of the Fayetteville Square. Global Campus Building is sufficient in most uses. It houses offices for the staff who design the university's online, distance and professional programs. Its building code is GLBL.

The Department of Theatre also operates its Black Box Theater within the Global Campus Building.

See also Global Campus.

University of Arkansas Libraries

The University of Arkansas Libraries currently include the David W. Mullins Library, the main research library on campus; the Robert A. and Vivian Young Law Library in the Leflar Law Center; the Fine Arts Library; the Chemistry and Biochemistry Library; and the Physics Library.

On second reference, University Libraries is sufficient. Generally treat as plural for noun-verb construction: the University Libraries are open. But it takes a singular verb when used as an administrative unit: University Libraries is budgeting for the next year.

University of Arkansas Police Department

The University of Arkansas Police Department is an internationally accredited law enforcement agency with power to enforce the laws of the state and to investigate crimes. The Associated Press recommends capitalizing names of police departments. UAPD is sufficient on second reference.

University of Arkansas Press

The press is charged with publishing books in service to the academic community and for the enrichment of the broader culture, especially works of value that are likely to be turned aside by commercial houses. Established in 1980, it issues about 20 titles per year, many of which relate to Arkansas or regional studies. The offices of the University of Arkansas Press are in the McIlroy House.

University of Arkansas System

The University of Arkansas is the flagship institution in the University of Arkansas System, which oversees 12 post-secondary academic institutions and six other units. The system is governed by the University of Arkansas Board of Trustees and administered by the president of the system. The system offices are in Little Rock.

Other campuses in the system include:

  • Cossatot Community College of the University of Arkansas
  • Phillips Community College of the University of Arkansas
  • University of Arkansas at Fort Smith
  • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
  • University of Arkansas at Monticello
  • University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
  • University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service
  • University of Arkansas Community College at Hope
  • University of Arkansas Community College at Batesville
  • University of Arkansas Community College at Morrilton
  • University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
    • UAMS has a secondary campus in Fayetteville
  • University of Arkansas Pulaski Technical College

The University of Arkansas System also oversees six other units:

  • Arkansas Archeological Survey
  • Arkansas School for Mathematics, Sciences and the Arts
  • Criminal Justice Institute
  • Division of Agriculture
  • eVersity Institute
  • Winthrop Rockefeller Center
Refer also to the University of Arkansas, Arkansas Archeological Survey and Division of Agriculture entries.

University of Arkansas Teaching Academy

The academy comprises faculty members who have been recognized by their peers for excellence in teaching. Its mission is to advocate and represent teaching interests at the university and support recognition and reward for exceptional teaching. On second reference, Teaching Academy is sufficient.

University Housing

This department within the Division of Student Affairs oversees operation of the on-campus residential halls. Its offices are in the University Housing Office on Douglas Street.

University Professor

To avoid confusion, treat this professorial rank like an endowed title and capitalize it: Gordon Morgan, who holds the rank of University Professor or Gordon Morgan, a University Professor of sociology.

Refer also to professor.

University Recreation

The University Recreation program oversees extracurricular recreation, intramurals and club sports at the university. Its offices are based at the Health, Physical Education and Recreation Building, and it is administratively overseen by the College of Education and Health Professions.

university relations

Refer also to the Office of University Relations entry.

University Seal

The University Seal was designed by Zelma Rothrock and adopted by the university's Board of Trustees in 1923. Prior to that year, the state seal was used. When referring to the official seal of the University of Arkansas, capitalize this phrase. Lowercase seal when it stands alone.

University Theatre

The University Theatre is part of the Fine Arts Center and seats 315. It is operated by the drama department.


Hyphenated, although most other combinations do not use a hyphen.


In general, no hyphen necessary: upend, upstage, uptown.


Follow Webster's New World Dictionary. Some examples: breakup, close-up, follow-up, grown-up, makeup, mix-up, runners-up.


Not upwards.



The abbreviation v. is used in this guide to identify the verb forms of words.

English verbs have three tenses: past, present and future. English also uses auxiliary verbs to show that action is continuing (progressive), to show that action has been completed (perfect), or to show both.

Tense Example
past She played tennis.
past progressive She was playing tennis.
past perfect She had played tennis.
past perfect progressive She had been playing tennis.

present He works for the universityy.
present progressive He is working for the university.
present perfect He has worked for the university.
present perfect progressive He has been working for the university.

future She will study.
future progressive She will be studying.
future perfect She will have studied.
future perfect progressive She will have been studying.

The mood, or mode, of a verb is used to show relationships regarding reality or intent. The four common moods are indicative, imperative, conditional and subjunctive.

  • Indicative Mood: This mood shows that action occurs in reality. The verb tenses above are all in the indicative mood.
  • Imperative Mood: The imperative mood is used to express a request, suggestion or command. Generally, the imperative mood is used in second-person constructions, and the subject — you — is often dropped: Go to class. Eat your vegetables. Duck!
  • Conditional Mood: The conditional mood expresses potential fulfillment of a condition that is not yet reality: If I passed the test, I would have a 4.0 grade point average.
  • Subjunctive Mood: The subjunctive mood of a verb is used to show contrary-to-fact conditions, hypothetical thoughts and expressions of doubt, wishfulness or regret: If I were a rich man, I would have a college building named after me. The writer is not trying to say that he once was rich, but rather is speculating what it would be like if he were to be rich. Using the indicative, If I was a rich man ..., is the statement of someone who has bonked his head and truly doesn't remember whether he used to be a rich man.
Refer also to the infinitives entry.

Veritate Duce Progredi

Capitalize and italicize the university's Latin motto. It roughly translates as "To advance with truth as our guide."

Refer also to the Ingredere ut Proficias Sapientia entry.

Verizon Ballroom

It is on the fifth floor of the Arkansas Union and can seat up to 600 people.


The native language of a country or place. Vernacular terms that are not widely known should not be used.

Refer to the colloquialism, dialect and jargon entries.


For common use, spell it out. For athletic competitions, the abbreviated vs. is permissible: Arkansas vs. Texas. For court cases, abbreviate it: Marbury v. Madison.

Veterans Day

No apostrophe. It is a day celebrating the service of veterans, not a day possessed by them. It is commemorated each Nov. 11.


The Associated Press recommends using two words: vice president, vice admiral, vice chair, vice chancellor.

vice chancellor

Capitalize the title vice chancellor when it is used in front of a person's name: Vice Chancellor Don Pederson. Lowercase when it comes after a name: Mark Power, the vice chancellor for university advancement.

The vice chancellor for academic affairs is also the provost. Preferred construction for use of the provost's titles: Provost Jim Coleman, the vice chancellor for academic affairs, said....


Acceptable in all references for very important person(s).

visiting professor

A visiting professor is usually hired on a contract with a set time period. Use lowercase.


Lowercase vitamin and use a capital letter and figure: vitamin E, vitamin B-12.

Vol Walker Hall

Built in 1935, the building was originally the university library. It now houses the Fay Jones School of Architecture and Design. Do not confuse it with the similarly named Willard J. Walker Hall. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places, and its building code is WALK.

A major renovation of Vol Walker, including an addition to the west side, began in 2011 and was finished in 2013.

vote tabulations

Use figures: The Faculty Senate voted 83-5 in favor.

W - Z

Wallace W. and Jama M. Fowler House

Finished in 2008, this house is the chancellor's residence on campus. It is named for benefactors. On second reference, Fowler House is sufficient. Just west of the house is the Fowler House Conservatory, which is used for events as well.

Wally Cordes Teaching and Faculty Support Center

The center is on Level 7 of the Harmon Avenue Parking Facility.

Walton College

Refer to the Sam M. Walton College of Business.


Capitalize as part of the name of a conflict: World War II, Vietnam War, Civil War.


Spell out the state in most instances and never abbreviate when referring to the U.S. capital.

Use state of Washington or Washington state and Washington, D.C., or District of Columbia when context requires distinction between the state and federal district.

See also the states entry.

web, web page, webcam, webmaster, website, and World Wide Web

The Associated Press treats World Wide Web as a proper name. The shortened form, web, should be lowercase when it stands alone. When web is combined with other words to coin a new word, lowercase the combination.

For print, only use short URL addresses. Generally, the prefixes "http://" and "https://" are unnecessary to include in print. If an address breaks over a line in print, do not add a hyphen to show continuation. Use a forced return after an existing punctuation such as a period or slash if the URL will not fit on one line:

  • news.uark.edu/

For web, either use the full URL for shorter addresses or embed a longer web address as a link within an appropriate phrase in the normal narrative text.

Refer also to the University Web Guidelines for more information.

West Avenue Annex

Acquired in 1957 and most recently renovated in 2006, the annex is on West Avenue between Lafayette and Dickson streets. It houses research and service units of the College of Education and Health Professions as well as the Center for Mathematics and Science Education and the university's office of affirmative action. Its building code is WAAX.


Capitalize for the film and book genre, but lowercase the style of music.


Refer also to the that, which and who, whom entries.


Refer to the Blacks, whites entry.

white paper

Two words and lowercase.

who's, whose

Who's is a contraction for who is: Who's there? And whose is a possessive: She is the student whose score was perfect.

who, whom

Who is a pronoun used for references to human beings and animals that are named. Grammatically, who is the subject of a sentence, clause or phrase and never the object: The professor who discovered the new method teaches entomology. Who goes there?

Whom is used when someone is the object of a verb or preposition: The professor to whom the grant was given discovered the new method. Whom do you wish to question?


No hyphen in most instances: campuswide, citywide, collegewide, industrywide, statewide, nationwide, universitywide, worldwide.


Usually hyphenated: wide-angle, wide-awake, wide-eyed, wide-open.

Willard and Pat Walker Pavilion

Built in 1998, this facility provides indoor training facilities for the university athletic teams. Walker Pavilion is sufficient on second reference. Its building code is IDPA.

Willard J. Walker Hall

Opened in 2007, this building houses the Graduate School of Business. Writers should be careful to avoid confusion with the similarly named Vol Walker Hall. Willard J. Walker Hall's building code is WJWH.


Refer to the seasons entry.


No hyphen when it means in the direction of or with regard to: clockwise, counter-clockwise, lengthwise, otherwise, slantwise.

Women's Giving Circle

Created in 2002, the Women's Giving Circle provides members with philanthropic opportunities to raise money to support projects on the campus.

Wooo Pig Sooie

The official spelling of the university's Hog Call.

Refer also to Hog Call.

World Trade Center Arkansas

Established in 2006, the World Trade Center Arkansas provides expertise to businesses that are considering pursuing international operations, both those in Arkansas looking to expand beyond the United States and those outside the states wanting make connections in Arkansas. Its mission is to encourage stability, peace and world trade development on the global level. Its offices are in Rogers, and it is a member of the World Trade Center Association.

World War I, World War II

Use Roman numerals to dilineate wars. Don't abbreviate as WWI or WWII.

World Wide Web

Refer to the web entry.


Capital X and hyphenate.


Equal to 3 feet, the metric equivalent is approximately 0.91 meter.


Use figures without commas when they stand alone or with a month: She was born in 1975; The sesquicentennial will begin in March 2021. Use commas to set off the year when both the month and day are included: Jan. 11, 1975, was a special day. Use an s without an apostrophe to indicate spans of decades or centuries: the 1890s, the 1800s.

Years are the only exception to the general rule that numbers starting a sentence should be spelled out: 1976 was the bicentennial.

When showing a range, use 2009-10 to show a fiscal year or academic year. For other periods, spell out the range: from 2009 to 2010.

Refer also to academic year, A.D., B.C., B.C.E., calendar year, C.E., centuries, fiscal year, historical periods and events, and months.


Use only in direct quotes and in phrases that do not refer to a specific day: Yesterday we were young. Use the day and date otherwise.


Applies to boys and girls from age 13 to 18. Use man or woman for individuals 18 and over.

Young Law Library

Refer to the Robert A. and Vivian Young Law Library entry.

Yocum Hall

Built in 1963, this residential hall was named for Judge Henry S. Yocum, who served on the University of Arkansas Board of Trustees for 20 years. The residence hall has about 530 beds available to all students. Its building code is YOCM.

zero, zeros

Spell out in the same instances as other numbers from one to nine. Use a numeral otherwise.

ZIP code

Use ZIP in all references for Zoning Improvement Plan, but lowercase the word code. Use the five major numbers together without a comma. If adding the "plus four" numbers, use a hyphen to separate them: Fayetteville, AR 72701-3444.